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京津冀地区农业生产与水资源利用: 历史与适水转型

齐永青 罗建美 高雅 闵雷雷 韩琳娜 沈彦俊

齐永青, 罗建美, 高雅, 闵雷雷, 韩琳娜, 沈彦俊. 京津冀地区农业生产与水资源利用: 历史与适水转型[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(5): 713−722 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210726
引用本文: 齐永青, 罗建美, 高雅, 闵雷雷, 韩琳娜, 沈彦俊. 京津冀地区农业生产与水资源利用: 历史与适水转型[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(5): 713−722 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210726
QI Y Q, LUO J M, GAO Y, MIN L L, HAN L N, SHEN Y J. Crop production and agricultural water consumption in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: History and water-adapting routes[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(5): 713−722 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210726
Citation: QI Y Q, LUO J M, GAO Y, MIN L L, HAN L N, SHEN Y J. Crop production and agricultural water consumption in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: History and water-adapting routes[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(5): 713−722 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210726

京津冀地区农业生产与水资源利用: 历史与适水转型

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210726
基金项目: 河北省重点研发计划农业节水科技创新专项(21326410D, 21327004D)、国家自然科学基金项目(41930865, 41877169)、中国科学院国际伙伴计划一带一路专项(153E13KYSB20170010)和河北省自然科学基金创新群体项目(D2021503001)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    齐永青, 主要研究方向为农业水文与水资源。E-mail: qiyq@sjziam.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    沈彦俊, 主要研究方向为农业水文与水资源。E-mail: yjshen@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S271

Crop production and agricultural water consumption in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: History and water-adapting routes

Funds: This research was supported by the Key Research and Development Project of Hebei Province (21326410D, 21327004D), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41930865, 41877169), the International Partnership Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (153E13KYSB20170010) and the Innovation Group Project of the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (D2021503001).
More Information
  • 摘要: 京津冀地区是资源型缺水地区, 也是我国的主要农业区之一。本文对京津冀地区农业生产和灌溉水资源利用的历史阶段特征和适水转型进行了分析, 对京津冀地区农业适水转型路线提出建议。1970年代末以来, 井灌为主的灌溉体系基本覆盖平原农区, 小麦玉米占优的作物结构形成, 蔬果产能快速扩大。粮食产量从2136.2万t增加至3944.8万t, 蔬菜产量从1093.7万t增加至5508.4万t, 水果产量从144.0万t增加至1505.2万t。灌溉占地下水消耗的70%, 是京津冀平原区地下水超采的主要原因。近40年来, 京津冀三地农业的差异化发展强化了河北省在京津冀农业生产中的重要性和基础性功能, 也加重了河北平原农业生产和资源节水压力。现有田间试验和作物模型研究结果表明, 通过优化轮作模式, 降低复种指数, 将小麦-玉米一年两熟灌溉高产模式调整为两年三熟或者三年四熟, 减少高耗水的小麦, 适度增加杂粮、薯类或将夏玉米改为春玉米等措施, 可在较小产量损失下, 达到农业耗水与水资源条件的平衡。现有研究明确了通过压缩高耗水作物构建适水种植结构的总体方向, 但对于不同适水轮作模式在中长期时间尺度上的产粮能力与耗水强度的交互关系仍不明晰, 实用高效的适水田间管理与生产技术支撑体系也需不断完善。在政策层面, 需健全京津冀地区农业综合规划与产业发展体系, 统筹长期目标和短期措施, 在保障区域粮食安全和农产品生产稳定的前提下, 有序地推进京津冀地区农业生产的适水转型。
  • 图  1  京津冀地区1949—2018年粮食作物生产规模和产量变化

    Figure  1.  Changes of grain crops production in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 1949 to 2018

    图  2  京津冀地区1949—2018年棉花和油料作物生产规模和产量变化

    Figure  2.  Changes of cotton and oilseed crops production in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 1949 to 2018

    图  3  1978—2018年京津冀地区蔬菜(a)、水果(b)播种面积与产量变化

    Figure  3.  Changes of vegetables (a) and fruits (b) production in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 1978 to 2018

    图  4  京津冀三地1978年与2018年作物生产规模(a)与种植结构(b) 对比

    Figure  4.  Comparison of crop planting area (a) and structure (b) between 1978 and 2018 in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei

    图  5  2001—2018年京津冀地区用水结构变化

    Figure  5.  Changes of water-use structure in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region from 2001 to 2018

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-29
  • 录用日期:  2022-01-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-02-19
  • 刊出日期:  2022-05-18

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