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我国农田氨挥发研究进展与减排对策

刘伯顺 黄立华 黄金鑫 黄广志 蒋小曈

刘伯顺, 黄立华, 黄金鑫, 黄广志, 蒋小曈. 我国农田氨挥发研究进展与减排对策[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(6): 875−888 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210820
引用本文: 刘伯顺, 黄立华, 黄金鑫, 黄广志, 蒋小曈. 我国农田氨挥发研究进展与减排对策[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(6): 875−888 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210820
LIU B S, HUANG L H, HUANG J X, HUANG G Z, JIANG X T. Research progress toward and emission reduction measures of ammonia volatilization from farmlands in China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(6): 875−888 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210820
Citation: LIU B S, HUANG L H, HUANG J X, HUANG G Z, JIANG X T. Research progress toward and emission reduction measures of ammonia volatilization from farmlands in China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(6): 875−888 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210820

我国农田氨挥发研究进展与减排对策

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210820
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(41977148)、国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFD02003003-2)和吉林省科技发展计划项目(20190303090SF)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘伯顺, 主要研究方向为盐碱地氮素转化与利用。E-mail: liubaishun@iga.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    黄立华, 主要研究方向为盐碱地改良与地力培育。E-mail: huanglihua@iga.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S158.3

Research progress toward and emission reduction measures of ammonia volatilization from farmlands in China

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41977148), the National Key Research and Development Project of China (2016YFD02003003-2), and Jilin Province Science and Technology Development Plan Project (20190303090SF).
More Information
  • 摘要: 氨挥发是我国农田氮肥损失的主要途径, 不仅降低了氮肥利用效率, 还会造成雾霾、大气干湿沉降和温室效应等生态环境问题。本文简要分析了近10年(2011—2020年)我国农田氨挥发研究现状, 总体上呈迅速发展态势且国际化趋势显著, 但研究的影响力有待提升; 由于我国幅员辽阔, 农田氨挥发呈现较大的时空变异特点, 与作物种类、施肥、气候、土壤以及作物生长期等密切相关, 氨挥发的调控必须因地制宜对氮肥进行科学管理; 农田氨挥发测定方法历经200多年的发展, 由最初的间接估算逐渐发展为化学测量和光谱分析, 测量的精确性和范围都得到了大幅提升。本文也概括总结了我国在农田氨挥发减排上的主要措施以及存在的问题, 提出未来应加强农田氨挥发的微生物学机理和时空变异性研究, 做好测定方法的对比研究及空天地一体化技术的应用, 加强耕作机械化与智能化, 逐步完善减排评价体系等减排对策。旨在为我国未来氨挥发研究和制定合理的减排政策提供参考。
  • 图  1  2011—2020年我国和其他国家关于农田氨挥发研究的发文量及其占比的变化

    Figure  1.  Amount and proportion changes of the articles about ammonia volatilization from farmland in China and other countries from 2011 to 2020

    图  2  我国不同耕地类型(A)和作物种类(B)氨挥发损失率

    所有数据经过了log10(X+1)标准化处理, X为氨挥发损失率的实际值。ns表示无显著差异; *表示差异显著(P<0.05); **表示差异极显著(P<0.01); 不同小写字母表示作物种类间差异显著(P<0.05)。The data have been standardized by log10(X+1), X is the actual value of ammonia volatilization loss rate. “ns” means no significant difference; “*” means a significant difference (P<0.05); “**” means a very significant difference (P<0.01); different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different crop types at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  2.  Ammonia volatilization loss rates of different arable land (A) and crop (B) types in China

    图  3  水田和旱地施用尿素后氨挥发过程图

    图中实线箭头的方向表示促进氨挥发, 虚线箭头的方向表示抑制氨挥发。①尿素水解; ②硝化作用; ③异化硝酸盐还原作用; ④吸附作用; ⑤释放NH4+; ⑥藻类光合作用。The direction of the solid arrow in the figure shows ammonia volatilization promotion, and the direction of the dashed arrow shows ammonia volatilization inhibition. ① hydrolysis of urea; ② nitrification; ③ reduction of alienated nitrate; ④ adsorption; ⑤ release NH4+; ⑥ algal photosynthesis.

    Figure  3.  Diagram of ammonia volatilization process after applying urea in paddy and upland

    表  1  农田氨挥发领域SCI发文量TOP 10国家论文发表情况

    Table  1.   Conditions of publication of SCI papers in the field of farmland ammonia volatilization in top 10 countries

    国家
    Nation
    SCI发文量
    SCI papers
    发文量占比Proportion of documents
    issued (%)
    国际合著文章占比Proportion of international
    co-authored paper (%)
    总引用频次
    Total citation frequency
    平均单篇引用频次
    Average single citation frequency
    中国 China28629.737.4570919.96
    美国 USA18819.521.3255013.56
    巴西 Brazil12412.921.8160912.98
    加拿大 Canada474.917.067214.30
    澳大利亚 Australia404.235.0110327.57
    德国 Germany394.138.552513.46
    西班牙 Spain262.734.675429.00
    新西兰 New Zealand222.336.480136.41
    意大利 Italy212.214.350323.95
    日本 Japan181.938.923012.78
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  化学吸收法测定氨挥发的原理及优缺点

    Table  2.   Principles, advantages and disadvantages of chemical absorption method for determination of ammonia volatilization

    方法
    Method
    原理
    Principle
    装置示意图
    Device schematic
    优点
    Advantage
    缺点
    Disadvantage
    参考文献
    Reference
    密闭室法
    Chamber Technique
    密闭室内部放置酸液吸收土壤挥发出的NH3, 测定吸收液中的${\rm{NH}}_4^ + $-N浓度计算氨挥发损失速率An acid solution is placed inside the airtight chamber to absorb the NH3 from the soil, and the ${\rm{NH}}_4^ + $-N concentration in the absorption solution is measured to calculate the loss rate of ammonia volatilization简单方便, 可移动性好
    Simple, convenient, good mobility
    忽视了通气条件的影响, 误差较大Ignoring the influence of ventilation conditions with large error[39,41]
    德尔格氨管法
    Dräger-Tube Method
    用手泵抽气, 使NH3经过装有酸性混合物的德尔格氨检测管, 记录检测管上的读数以及手泵抽气的次数和时间、测定时期的平均大气压等数据计算氨挥发损失率It draws air by hand pump, makes NH3 pass through the Dräger ammonia detection tube containing the acid mixture, records the readings on the detection tube, the number and time of air pumping by hand pump, the average atmospheric pressure during the measurement period and other data to calculate the loss rate of ammonia volatilization测量时间短, 受外界环境的影响小, 无需实验室分析Short measurement time with less of external environment, not requirement for laboratory analysis室内空气交换率低, 实际氨挥发损失被低估, 需校正Low indoor air exchange rate, underestimation of the actual loss of ammonia volatilization, calibration required[42]
    密闭室间歇抽气法 Dynamic Chamber Technique用真空泵将密闭室中的NH3抽出, 让抽出的气体被洗气瓶中的酸液吸收, 测定吸收液中的${\rm{NH}}_4^ + $-N浓度计算氨挥发损失速率The NH3 in the closed chamber is extracted by a vacuum pump, and is absorbed by the acid liquid in the gas washing cylinder; and the concentration of ${\rm{NH}}_4^ + $-N in the absorption liquid is measured to calculate the loss rate of ammonia volatilization简单易行, 回收率高
    Simple, high recovery rate
    结果受抽气速率和抽气时间影响较大Greatly affected by the pumping rate and pumping time[43-44]
    通气法
    Venting Method
    使用2~5 cm浸有磷酸甘油溶液的海绵为吸收介质, 利用NH3向上的扩散作用吸收NH3, 其中, 下层海绵用来吸收农田挥发的NH3, 上层海绵防止空气中的NH3进入The 2−5 cm sponges soaked in phosphate glycerol solution is used as the absorption medium according to the upward diffusion of NH3. Among them, the lower layer of sponge is used to absorb NH3 volatilized in farmland, and the upper layer of sponge prevents the entry of NH3 in the air操作简单, 无需动力设备, 精度高Easy to operate, no power equipment required, and high precision结果易受人为操作和降雨影响
    Susceptible to human manipulation and rainfall
    [37]
    风洞法
    Wind-Tunnel System
    在风扇驱动下, 气流稳定地流过风洞洞体, 风洞内装有NH3吸收液, 通过测量风洞进气前后的NH3质量差来获得氨挥发通量Driven by the fan, the air flow stably flows through the wind tunnel body and the wind tunnel is filled with ammonia absorbing liquid. The ammonia volatilization flux is obtained by measuring the mass difference of NH3 before and after the wind tunnel intake不受天气的影响, 精度高
    Not affected by the weather with high precision
    成本较高, 不能模拟静风和静水状态下氨挥发High cost, unable to simulate ammonia volatilization in still wind and still water conditions[43,45]
    质量平衡法
    Mass Balance Approach
    离地面不同高度安装迎风采样器, 采样器内的酸液可吸收NH3, 同时测定挥发源下风向和上风向处NH3的通量, 通过计算差值估算氨挥发速率The samplers is installed upwind at different heights from the ground, which can absorb ammonia by acid liquid. At the same time, the flux of NH3 in the downwind and upwind directions of the volatilization source is measured and the ammonia volatilization rate is estimated by calculating the difference.对田间自然环境干扰较小, 能监测大面积农田氨挥发量Little disturbance to the natural environment in the field, and monitoring ammonia volatilization in a large area of farmland设备昂贵, 对气象和下垫面条件要求较高Expensive equipment, and higher requirements for weather and underlying surface conditions[46]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  常见的光学测定法测定氨挥发的原理及优缺点

    Table  3.   Principles, advantages and disadvantages of common optical measurement methods for determination of ammonia volatilization

    方法
    Method
    原理
    Principle
    优点
    Advantage
    缺点
    Disadvantage
    参考文献
    Reference
    非分散红外法 Nondispersive infrared
    (NDIR)
    使红外光穿过腔室和两个滤波器, 由光电探测器进行监测Infrared light passes through the chamber and two filters, which are monitored by photodetectors 简单, 响应速度快, 稳定性好
    Simple, fast response and good stability
    选择性差, 分辨率低
    Poor selectivity and low resolution
    [47]
    腔衰荡光谱技术
    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS)
    通过其中一个反射镜镜头注入腔中的激光脉冲在其中多次反射, 将其波长调整到NH3光谱线, 以测量内部所含NH3的吸收系数The laser pulse injected into the cavity through one of the mirror lenses is reflected in it multiple times, and its wavelength is adjusted to the NH3 spectral line to measure the absorption coefficient of the ammonia contained inside 灵敏度高, 稳定性好
    High sensitivity and good stability
    要求激光频率与腔模式精确匹配, 受不稳定机械能影响Requirement for precisely match of laser frequency to cavity mode, and affected by unstable mechanical energy [49]
    离轴积分腔输出光谱技术Off-axis intergrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) 使一束激光在光腔中不断反射, 测量透过光腔的时间积分光强, 通过与入射光强的差值, 计算待测物质的浓度A laser beam is continuously reflected in the optical cavity and the time-integrated light intensity transmitted through the optical cavity is measured. The concentration of the substance to be tested is calculated by the difference with the incident light intensity 结构简单, 对环境要求低, 能适应更多的要求It has a simple structure, low environmental requirements and can adapt to more requirements 为实现高信噪比, 须在腔镜尺寸和探测器性能之间进行最佳权衡To achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio, an optimal trade-off between mirror size and detector performance must be made [48]
    波长调制量子级联激光吸收光谱技术 Wavelength modulated quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy(WM-QCLAS) 用高反射率镜对中红外激光进行多次反射, 有效光程达数十米, 测量氨气对特征吸收峰处中红外激光能量的微弱吸收, 通过对吸收峰光谱曲线的实时积分进行痕量气体的浓度反演The mid-infrared laser is reflected multiple times with a high-reflectivity mirror, and the effective optical path reaches tens of meters. The weak absorption of the mid-infrared laser energy at the characteristic absorption peak by the target gas is measured, and concentration of trace gases is inverted by real-time integration of absorption peak spectral curves 对氨气浓度变化的响应时间短, 功耗低, 携带方便Fast response to changes in ammonia concentration, low power consumption and easy portability [49]
    可调谐二极管激光吸收光谱技术 Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy(TDLAS) 可调谐二极管激光器发射的激光会随注入电流的调整达到所需的波长, 使用光路扩展技术提高信噪比(SNR)来实现较低的检测极限Tunable diode lasers emit laser that is tuned to the desired wavelength with injection current, the optical path expansion techniques is used to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to achieve lower detection limits 选择性高, 灵敏度好, 应用范围广High selectivity, good sensitivity and wide application range 实际应用中易受光强波动和粉尘等因素的影响, 造成误差In practical applications, it is easily affected by factors such as light intensity fluctuation and dust, resulting in errors [38,49-50]
    光声光谱法
    Photoacoustic spectrometry (PAS)
    当激光周期性照射气体时, 光能变为热能的同时也会产生声波信号, 通过监测激光周期性变化与声波信号强度之间的关系计算气体浓度When the laser irradiates the gas periodically, the light energy becomes heat energy and an acoustic signal is also generated. The gas concentration is calculated by monitoring the relationship between the periodic variation of the laser and the intensity of the acoustic signal 具有非常高的检测灵敏度
    It has very high detection sensitivity
    受干扰气体的影响大, 共振模式不易达到Greatly affected by the interfering gas, not easy to reach the resonance mode [47,49]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  我国农田氨挥发主要减排措施的优势及存在的问题

    Table  4.   Advantages and problems of the main emission reduction measures for ammonia volatilization from farmland in China

    减排措施
    Emission reduction measure
    减排效率
    Emission reduction efficiency (%)
    主要优势
    Main advantage
    存在的问题
    Existing problem
    改进方向
    Improvement direction
    参考文献
    Reference
    研发新型肥料
    Research and development of new fertilizers
    缓/控释肥料
    Slow/controlled release fertilizers
    11.53~25.33 能有效减少养分的损失
    Effectively reducing the loss of nutrients
    成本较高, 膜材料的稳定性受气温和降水的影响较大The cost is high and the stability of the membrane material is greatly affected by temperature and precipitation 降低研发成本, 增加膜材料的稳定性Reducing research costs and increasing the stability of membrane materials [57]
    生物肥料Biological fertilizers
    32.42~42.21 避免环境污染, 减少农药的投入Avoiding environmental pollution and reducing the input of pesticides 对温度和水分等环境条件要求较高High requirements for environmental conditions such as temperature and moisture 创造有利于有效微生物生存的条件, 增加产品有效期Creating conditions conducive to the survival of effective microorganisms, and extending product shelf life [58]
    改进施肥方式
    Improving fertilization methods
    氮肥减施
    Reduction of nitrogen fertilization
    24 成本低, 简单有效
    Low cost, simple and effective
    减量施氮具有盲目性
    Nitrogen reduction is blind
    因地制宜确定氮肥用量Determining the amount of nitrogen fertilizer according to local conditions [53]
    氮肥深施
    Nitrogen fertilizer deep placement
    20~45 能有效降低氨挥发并提高产量Effectively reducing ammonia volatilization and increasing production 深施的机械化水平低, 部分地区受地形限制明显The mechanization level of deep nitrogen fertilizer application is low and some areas are obviously restricted by terrain 加快深施机械的研发和推广, 降低深施成本Accelerating the research and development, and promoting nitrogen fertilizer deep application machinery and reducing the cost [60]
    有机和无机肥配施
    Combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers
    17 可以实现NH3和N2O的同步减排, 提高产量Simultaneous emission reduction of NH3 and N2O to increase yield 有机和无机肥各自所占的比例难以确定The proportion of organic and inorganic fertilizers is difficult to determine 结合当地的产量和减排效果等指标确定合适的配施比例Determining the appropriate proportion of fertilization based on local production, emission reduction effect and other indicators [55]
    完善管理方式
    Perfect management method
    控制灌溉
    Controlled irrigation
    14 可以有效提高氮素和水分利用效率Effectively improving nitrogen and water use efficiency 不合理的灌溉量会增加氮素淋溶损失Unreasonable irrigation rate will increase nitrogen leaching loss 选择适宜的灌溉量和灌溉时间, 避免氮素淋溶损失Choosing appropriate irrigation quantity and time to avoid nitrogen leaching loss [61]
    合理轮作
    Reasonable crops rotation
    31.3~38.0 能有效减少氮素投入量和氮素污染
    Reducing nitrogen input and nitrogen pollution
    轮作作物选择不合理可能影响农民收益Unreasonable selection of crops rotation may affect farmers’ income 结合实际选择适宜的轮作制度, 实现经济和环境效益的平衡Choosing an appropriate crops rotation system based on the actual situation to achieve a balance between economic and environmental benefits [64]
    添加土壤添加剂
    Addition of soil additives
    秸秆还田
    Straw return to soil
    30 能够有效利用农业废弃物
    Effective use of agricultural waste
    减排效果存在争议且差异较大Emission reduction effects are controversial and vary widely 深入研究秸秆还田对氨挥发影响的机理Focusing on the mechanism of the effect of straw returning on ammonia volatilization [66]
    脲酶抑制剂
    Urease inhibitor
    41~96 环境友好, 肥效期长, 潜力巨大Environment friendly, long fertilizer effect period and huge potential 受环境的影响大, 稳定性较差Greatly affected by the environment with poor stability 充分考虑不同种类脲酶抑制剂的应用条件和施用量Fully considering the application conditions and dosage of different types of urease inhibitors [71]
    生物炭
    Biochar
    20.00~32.42 较大的表面积和良好的吸附性可以有效降低氨挥发
    Effectively reducing ammonia volatilization
    减排效果存在争议, 不同类型生物炭的减排效果有所不同The emission reduction effect of biochar is controversial and different types of biochar have different emission reduction effects 重点关注生物炭对农田土壤氨挥发影响机理的研究Focusing on the research of the mechanism of biochar’s effect on ammonia volatilization in farmland [76, 79]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-22
  • 录用日期:  2022-02-15
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