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太行山东部县域“三生”用地转型与景观生态风险分析

于淑会 康园园 邓伟 王功明 王洪宽 邢宇华

于淑会, 康园园, 邓伟, 王功明, 王洪宽, 邢宇华. 太行山东部县域“三生”用地转型与景观生态风险分析−以河北省平山县为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(7): 1113−1122 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20220365
引用本文: 于淑会, 康园园, 邓伟, 王功明, 王洪宽, 邢宇华. 太行山东部县域“三生”用地转型与景观生态风险分析−以河北省平山县为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(7): 1113−1122 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20220365
YU S H, KANG Y Y, DENG W, WANG G M, WANG H K, XING Y H. Analysis of “Production-Living-Ecological” land transformation and landscape ecological risk in the eastern counties of the Taihang Mountain: a case study in Pingshan County[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(7): 1113−1122 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20220365
Citation: YU S H, KANG Y Y, DENG W, WANG G M, WANG H K, XING Y H. Analysis of “Production-Living-Ecological” land transformation and landscape ecological risk in the eastern counties of the Taihang Mountain: a case study in Pingshan County[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(7): 1113−1122 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20220365

太行山东部县域“三生”用地转型与景观生态风险分析以河北省平山县为例

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20220365
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金重点项目(41930651)、河北省社会科学基金项目(HB19GL066、HB17YJ026)与河北省社会科学发展研究课题(201704120101)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    于淑会, 主要从事土地生态安全与生态系统可持续管理研究。E-mail: yushuhui126@126.com

    通讯作者:

    邓伟, 主要从事山地国土空间与发展研究。E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: X171; X22

Analysis of “Production-Living-Ecological” land transformation and landscape ecological risk in the eastern counties of the Taihang Mountain: a case study in Pingshan County

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41930651), Hebei Social Science Fund Project (HB19GL066, HB17YJ026), and Hebei Social Science Development Research Fund Project (201704120101).
More Information
  • 摘要: 太行山是京津冀地区的天然生态屏障, 评估太行山区生态风险对于保障其生态功能的发挥及保障京津冀生产、生活与生态(三生)用水安全具有极其重要的生态战略意义。本文以河北省平山县为研究对象, 建立太行山区县域“三生”空间利用分类系统, 在ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2、ArcGIS 10.2和Fragstats 3.4软件支持下, 探讨平山县“三生”用地转型特征, 采用景观生态风险评价方法分析平山县“三生”用地生态风险, 并对“三生”用地转型对生态风险的贡献率进行了测算。结果表明: 1) 1990—2018年, 平山县生态用地大幅减少, 生产用地与生活用地增幅显著。增加的生产与生活用地主要来自生态用地, 转型区域主要分布在道路沿线与水域周边。2)生态空间的风险加剧区位于县中西部高海拔区, 未来应科学划定生态保护红线及加强深山区生态保护; 生产空间的风险加剧区位于县北部及东部的低山丘陵区, 未来应更关注耕地保护及其高效利用; 生活空间风险加剧区主要位于县南部, 未来应调整国土资源利用方式、科学规划旅游资源布局。3)平山县乡镇单元“三生”用地转型对生态风险的贡献差异性较大(0~29.97%), 对生态风险贡献最大的用地转型为“生态用地转为生产用地”。研究结果可为促进平山县“三生”用地协调发展提供参考, 为探索太行山区绿色发展与国土空间结构优化提供借鉴。
  • 图  1  研究区河北省平山县地理位置与行政区划

    1: 合河口乡; 2: 上观音堂乡; 3: 孟庄镇; 4: 宅北乡; 5: 东王坡乡;6: 南甸镇; 7: 上三汲乡; 8: 平山镇; 9: 东回舍镇; 10: 温塘镇; 11: 古月镇; 12: 北冶乡; 13: 下口镇; 14: 杨家桥乡; 15: 营里乡; 16: 蛟潭庄镇; 17: 小觉镇; 18: 下槐镇; 19: 西柏坡镇; 20: 苏家庄乡; 21: 岗南镇; 22: 西大吾乡; 23: 两河乡。1: Hehekou Township; 2: Shangguanyintang Township; 3: Mengzhuang Town; 4: Zhaibei Township; 5: Dongwangpo Township; 6: Nandian Town; 7: Shangsanji Township; 8: Pingshan Town; 9: Donghuishe Town; 10: Wentang Town; 11: Guyue Town; 12: Beiye Township; 13: Xiakou Town; 14: Yangjiaqiao Township; 15: Yingli Township; 16: Jiaotanzhuang Town; 17: Xiaojue Town; 18: Xiahuai Town; 19: Xibaipo Town; 20: Sujiazhuang Township; 21: Gangnan Town; 22: Xidawu Township; 23: Lianghe Township.

    Figure  1.  Geographical location and administrative divisions of the study area of Pingshan County, Hebei Province

    图  2  1990—2018年平山县“三生”空间用地转型空间分布(a: 1990—2000年; b: 2000—2010年; c: 2010—2018年)

    1: 岗南水库; 2: 黄壁庄水库; 3: 南甸镇; 4: 平山镇; 5: 温塘镇; 6: 五龙山一带。1: Gangnan Reservoir; 2: Huangbizhuang Reservoir; 3: Nandian Town; 4: Pingshan Town; 5: Wentang Town; 6: Wulongshan area.

    Figure  2.  Spatial distribution of “Production-Living-Ecological” spaces lands transformation in Pingshan County from 1990 to 2018 (a: 1990−2000; b: 2000−2010; c: 2010−2018)

    图  3  1990—2018年平山县“三生”空间用地景观生态风险等级空间分布(a: 1990年; b: 2000年; c: 2010年; d: 2018年)

    生态风险等级划分标准见表3

    Figure  3.  Spatial distribution of landscape ecological rise grades of “Production-Living-Ecological” spaces lands in Pingshan County from 1990 to 2018 (a: 1990; b: 2000; c: 2010; d: 2018)

    The granding standard of ecological risk is shown in Table 3.

    图  4  1990—2018年平山县“三生”空间用地景观生态风险变化趋势(a: 生态空间; b: 生产空间; c: 生活空间)

    Figure  4.  Change trend of landscaped ecological risk of “Production-Living-Ecological” spaces lands in Pingshan County from 1990 to 2018 (a: ecology space; b: production space; c: living space)

    表  1  “三生”空间分类系统与土地利用分类系统衔接表

    Table  1.   Linkage table of “Production-Living-Ecological” spaces classification and land use classification system

    空间类型
    Space type
    土地利用类型 Land use type
    一级分类
    Primary classification
    二级分类
    Secondary classification
    生产空间 Production space耕地 Cultivated land水田、旱地 Water field, dryland
    生态空间
    Ecological space
    林地 Woodland乔木林、灌木林、其他林地
    Highwood, shrubwood, other forest land
    草地 Grassland天然牧草地、人工牧草地、其他草地
    Natural grassland, artificial grassland, other grasslands
    水域及水利设施用地
    Waters and water facilities land
    水库水面、坑塘水面、内陆滩涂
    Reservoir, pond, inland beach
    生活空间
    Living space
    建设用地
    Land used for building
    商服用地、工矿仓储用地、住宅用地、公共管理与公共服务设施用地、
    交通运输用地、风景名胜设施用地
    Commercial land, mining warehouse land, residential land, land for public
    administration and public service facilities, transportation land, scenic spot facilities land
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  景观生态风险测算指标及计算方法

    Table  2.   Measure indexes and calculation methods of landscape ecological risk

    名称
    Name
    计算公式
    Computational formula
    公式说明
    Formula description
    生态意义
    Ecological meaning
    距离指数
    Distance index (Dj)
    ${D_j} = \dfrac{1}{2}\sqrt {{\rm{PD}}{_j} }$PDj是地类j的斑块密度(Fragstats 3.4)
    PDj is the patch density of land class j
    (Fragstats 3.4)
    代表景观中斑块之间隔离程度。正向指标, 值越高, 生态风险越大
    It represents the degree of isolation between patches in the landscape. As a positive indicator, the higher the value, the greater the ecological risk
    景观分离度
    Landscape separation index (Sj)
    $S _{j}=\dfrac{D_{j} }{ {\rm{P L} }_{j} }$PLj是地类j的面积指数(Fragstats 3.4)
    PLj is the area index of land class j (Fragstats 3.4)
    代表景观类型中不同斑块个体间分离程度。正向指标, 值越大代表景观越复杂, 景观生态稳定性较低, 生态风险越高
    It represents the degree of separation between individual patches in landscape types. As a positive indicator, the larger the value, the more complex the landscape, the lower the ecological stability of the landscape and the higher the ecological risk
    景观破碎度
    Landscape fragmentation index (Fj)
    $F _{j}=\dfrac{N_{j} }{A_{j} }$Nj是地类j的斑块数目(Fragstats 3.4), Aj是地类j
    斑块面积
    Nj is the number of patches of land class j (Fragstats 3.4), Aj is the patch area of land class j
    代表景观被分割的破碎后程度。正向指标, 值越高, 生态风险越大
    It represents the degree of fragmentation of the landscape. As a positive indicator, the higher the value, the greater the ecological risk
    景观干扰度指数 Landscape disturbance index (LDIj)LDIj=αFj+βEDj+γSjFj是地类j的破碎度; EDj是地类j的边界密度(Fragstats 3.4); Sj是地类j的分离度; αβγ为权
    重值, 通过熵权法计算得到
    Fj is the fragmentation degree of land class j, and
    EDj is the boundary density of land class j
    (Fragstats 3.4), Sj is the separation degree of land class j. α, β, γ are the weight values, which are calculated by the entropy weight method
    表示不同景观所代表的生态系统受到干扰的损失程度。正向指标, 值越大, 生态风险越大
    It indicates the loss degree due to disturb of ecosystem represented by different landscapes. As a positive indicator, the greater the value, the greater the ecological risk
    景观生态脆弱度指数
    Landscape vulnerability index (LVIj)
    (1)专家综合打分
    (2)归一化处理
    (1) Comprehensive
    expert scoring
    (2) Normalization processing
    参考荆玉平等[22]的研究, 对14种土地利用类型进
    行风险定级: 有林地、灌木林地(6级); 疏林地、
    其他林地(5级); 水田、水库坑塘、滩地(4级); 高
    覆盖度草地、中覆盖度草地、低覆盖度草地(3
    级); 旱地、农村居民点用地(2级); 城镇用地、其他建设用地(1级)。归一化处理后得到景观脆弱
    度指数(LDVj), 取值范围为(0, 1), 根据表1的衔接关系, 最后归类到“三生”用地的景观脆弱度指数
    Referring to the research of Jing Yuping, et al. [22],
    the risk rating of 14 land use types was carried out: closed forest land, shrubwood (level 6); sparse wood land, other forest land (level 5); water field, reservoir ponds, beach land (level 4); high coverage grassland, medium coverage grassland, low coverage grassland (level 3); dryland, rural settlement area (level 2); urban land, other construction land (level 1). The landscape fragility index (LDVj) is obtained after normalization with values in the range (0, 1); according to the articulation of Table 1, the final classification of the landscape fragility index of the “Production-Living-Ecological spaces” land sites were attained
    表示不同景观类型对外界干扰的敏感性。正向指标, 值越大, 生态风险越大
    It indicates the sensitivity of different landscape types to external interference. As a positive indicator, the greater the value, the greater the ecological risk
    景观生态损失度指数
    Landscape loss index (LLIj)
    ${\rm{LLI}}_{j}={\rm{L V I}}_{j} \times {\rm{L D I}}_{j}$LVIj是地类j的景观脆弱度指数, LDIj是地类j的景观干扰度指数
    LVIj is the landscape vulnerability index of land
    class j, and LDIj is the landscape interference index of land class j
    表示由于外界干扰导致景观敏感, 从而造成景观生态损失的程度。正向指标, 值越大, 生态风险越大
    It indicates the degree of landscape ecological loss caused by landscape sensitivity caused by external interference. As a positive indicator, the greater the value, the greater the ecological risk
    生态风险指数
    Ecological risk index (ERIi)
    ${\rm{E R I} }_i=\displaystyle\sum {\rm{E R I} }_{{i} }$${\rm{E R I}}_{i}=\displaystyle\sum_{j=1}^{n} \dfrac{A_{j} }{A} \times {\rm{L D D}}_{j}$ERIi是特定区域某一空间用地景观生态风险指
    数, i=1,2,3, 分别代表生产空间、生态空间与生活
    空间; Aj是地类j的斑块面积 (通过景观生态软件Fragstats 3.4得到); A是平山县总面积; LDDj是地
    j的景观生态损失度指数
    ERIi is the landscape ecological risk index of a spatial land in a specific area, i=1, 2, 3. They represent production space, ecological space and living space respectively; Aj is the patch area of land type j (obtained by landscape ecological software Fragstats 3.4); A is the total area of Pingshan County; LDDj is the landscape ecological loss index of land type j
    指景观格局因为外部环境干扰造成景观生态环境风险的异变情况, 主要通过描述区域生态损失测算得到
    It refers to the variation of landscape ecological environment risk caused by external environmental interference in landscape pattern, which is mainly calculated by describing the regional ecological loss
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  平山县“三生”空间景观生态风险分级标准

    Table  3.   Grading standards of landscape ecological risk of “Production-Living-Ecological” spaces in Pingshan County

    等级
    Grade
    生态风险指数 Ecological risk index
    生产空间
    Production space
    生态空间
    Ecological space
    生活空间
    Living space
    0.002~0.0160.31~10.250.09~0.20
    0.016~0.3310.25~18.450.20~0.72
    0.33~0.4218.45~27.420.72~3.07
    0.42~0.8827.42~35.243.07~7.32
    0.88~1.2935.24~45.237.32~13.34
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  1990—2018年平山县“三生”空间面积变化

    Table  4.   Change of “Production-Living-Ecological” spaces areas from 1990 to 2018

    空间类型
    Space type
    面积变化 Area change (hm2)动态变化度 Dynamic change
    1990—20002000—20102010—20181990—20002000—20102010—2018
    生产空间
    Production space
    −546.24452.061340.83−0.100.080.30
    生态空间
    Ecological space
    103.15−1441.15−2733.930.01−0.07−0.17
    生活空间
    Living space
    443.09989.091393.100.771.594.92
    总和 Sum0.681.62.42
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  1990—2018年平山县“三生”空间结构转移数量特征

    Table  5.   Quantitative characteristics of structure transfer of “Production-Living-Ecological” spaces in Pingshan County from 1990 to 2018

    hm2 
    年份
    Year
    生产空间
    Production space
    生态空间
    Ecological space
    生活空间
    Living space
    总计
    Sum
    1990—2000生产空间 Production space53 854.471675.25566.1956 095.92
    生态空间 Ecological space1569.86198 302.8431.56199 904.26
    生活空间 Living space125.3429.325612.495767.15
    总计 Sum55 549.67200 007.416210.24261 767.32
    2000—2010生产空间 Production space53 661.23756.281132.1655 549.67
    生态空间 Ecological space2087.22197 802.27117.92200 007.41
    生活空间 Living space253.287.725949.246210.24
    总计 Sum56 001.73198 566.277199.33261 767.32
    2010—2018生产空间 Production space46 325.677156.842519.2256 001.73
    生态空间 Ecological space10 075.77188 252.27238.23198 566.27
    生活空间 Living space941.12423.235834.987199.33
    总计 Sum57 342.56195 832.348592.43261 767.32
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  1990—2018年“三生”用地转型对景观生态风险的贡献率

    Table  6.   Contribution rates of “Production-Living-Ecological” spaces land transformation to landscape ecological risk from 1990 to 2018

    % 
    转型类别
    Transformation type
    生态空间
    Ecological space
    生产空间
    Production space
    生活空间
    Living space
    生活→生态
    Life→ecology
    0~1.19 (0.18)1)0~1.18 (0.32)0~0.51 (0.10)
    生活→生产
    Life→production
    0~0.53 (0.12)0~1.85 (0.42)0~2.93 (0.19)
    生态→生活
    Ecology→life
    0~3.48 (0.51)0~3.48 (0.83)0~2.43 (0.31)
    生态→生产
    Ecology→production
    0~12.28 (2.68)0~16.36 (5.19)0~7.65 (1.47)
    生产→生活
    Production→life
    0~3.23 (0.31)0~14.98 (2.00)0~29.97 (1.44)
    生产→生态
    Production→ecology
    0~11.62 (1.40)0~11.62 (3.08)0~7.95 (1.03)
      1)各行政乡镇用地转型的生态风险贡献率范围(平山县总体用地转型的生态风险贡献率值)。1) Range of ecological risk contribution of land transformation in each administrative township (ecological risk contribution rate of overall land use transformation in Pingshan County)
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-05-11
  • 录用日期:  2022-06-10
  • 修回日期:  2022-06-09
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-12
  • 刊出日期:  2022-07-05

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