胡潇方, 孙仁华, 孙元丰, 李晓阳, 高戈, 徐志宇, 严东权. 我国典型生态农业主体的实践特征与发展建议−基于431个国家级生态农场的研究分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(6): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230676
引用本文: 胡潇方, 孙仁华, 孙元丰, 李晓阳, 高戈, 徐志宇, 严东权. 我国典型生态农业主体的实践特征与发展建议−基于431个国家级生态农场的研究分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(6): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230676
HU X F, SUN R H, SUN Y F, LI X Y, GAO G, XU Z Y, YAN D Q. Analysis and suggestions on agroecological practices in China: a study based on 431 national eco-farms[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(6): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230676
Citation: HU X F, SUN R H, SUN Y F, LI X Y, GAO G, XU Z Y, YAN D Q. Analysis and suggestions on agroecological practices in China: a study based on 431 national eco-farms[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(6): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230676

我国典型生态农业主体的实践特征与发展建议基于431个国家级生态农场的研究分析

Analysis and suggestions on agroecological practices in China: a study based on 431 national eco-farms

  • 摘要: 生态农场是实现资源匹配、环境友好、食品安全的农业生产经营主体, 是生态农业的具体实践者, 代表我国当前生态农业生产经营的较高水平。本文基于431个国家级生态农场数据, 对我国生态农业生产经营主体的基本特征、生态农业技术措施应用、废弃物资源化利用情况等进行分析与讨论, 并提出建议与展望。研究发现: 1)主体平均规模为317.4 hm2, 平均注册登记资金为2312.3万元。生产农产品类别丰富, 产业业态多样, 获产品或管理认证的主体占94.3%。农场主平均年龄为47.6岁, 高中及以上学历占96.7%。2)有种植过程的主体均应用生态农业技术措施, 其中人工除草、布设杀虫灯、测土配方施肥、秸秆还田和布设黄/蓝板等措施应用率高。技术措施的选用可能与主体种植经验、技术难易程度及政策引导等因素有关。3)农业废弃物回收利用水平高, 各项废弃物回收利用率均在95%以上, 好氧堆肥是最常用的处理方式。处理方式较为单一可能与废弃物特点、处理成本、实施难易程度及政策考核方向等因素有关。基于本研究结果, 建议给予不同规模、类型的主体差异化政策支持, 鼓励主体探索应用更适宜的生态农业技术, 建议行业专家与技术人员加强对主体的技术指导与监测评估, 并加强对生态农场的生态与社会效益评价。

     

    Abstract: Eco-farms are important agroecological practitioners that pursue sustainable agricultural production. Based on data from 431 national eco-farms in China, we analyzed the characteristics of agroecological practices and provided suggestions. The 431 eco-farms cover all regions across China, except Qinghai, Xizang, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. Among them, 278 eco-farms conduct a planting business, 40 eco-farms conduct livestock or fish breeding, and 113 eco-farms conduct a combination business, including both planting and breeding. The results show that: 1) The average size of these eco-farms is 317.4 hm2, and the average registered capital is 23 million ¥. Eco-farms produce various types of agricultural products and develop integrated businesses, and 94.3% of them have at least one certification on products or on farm management. The average age of the eco-farm owners is 47.6 and 96.7% of them had finished high school studies or above. 2) All eco-farms with planting processes use agroecological techniques. Manual weeding, insecticidal lamps, soil testing and formula fertilization, crop straw return, and yellow/blue board are the most popular measures. The choice of different measures may be related to planting experience, difficulty of techniques, and policy guidance. 3) The agricultural waste recycling rate of eco-farms is high and aerobic composting is the commonly used treatment for organic waste. The processing methods are not diverse, which may be due to the characteristics of the waste, processing costs, difficulty of the techniques implementation, and policy guidance. In addition, during our field investigations, we found several other shortcomings of these eco-farms. 1) Many eco-farms ignore the importance of landscape patterns and, therefore, lack ecological function plots, such as corridors and patches associated with natural ecosystems. 2) There is a lack of guidance on the selection of agroecological techniques from official departments or experts; therefore, it is difficult for these eco-farms to improve their application of techniques according to local conditions. 3) Only a few agroecologically supportive policies or subsidies exist, and most consumers tend to spend less money on agricultural products; thus, many eco-farms cannot sustain extra spending on ecological techniques. 4) The regulatory authorities have paid insufficient attention to the monitoring of temporal changes in the agricultural ecological environment; hence, many eco-farms have shown a lack of motivation to regularly detect soil pollutants, organic matter, irrigation water quality, or other indicators. Furthermore, we provided the following suggestions for the development of agroecology in China. 1) Guide and support agricultural business entities with different land sizes or organizational types through differentiated policies and pay more attention to the evaluation of the benefits of various incentives and subsidies that have been provided. 2) Encourage agricultural business entities with economic and technical abilities to explore and apply appropriate ecological techniques under general policy guidance. 3) Experts and technicians should provide technical guidance, help with eco-environmental monitoring, and integrate and promote agroecological practice models for agricultural businesses. 4) In addition to the development and application of ecological techniques, researchers should enhance their analyses of the socioecological benefits of agroecological practices.

     

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