于水, 张晓龙, 王妍, 沈彦军. 气候变化对中国东北三省主要粮食作物影响研究综述[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(6): 1−16. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230692
引用本文: 于水, 张晓龙, 王妍, 沈彦军. 气候变化对中国东北三省主要粮食作物影响研究综述[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(6): 1−16. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230692
YU S, ZHANG X L, WANG Y, SHEN Y J. Review of research on the impacts of climate change on staple grain crops in the three provinces of Northeast China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(6): 1−16. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230692
Citation: YU S, ZHANG X L, WANG Y, SHEN Y J. Review of research on the impacts of climate change on staple grain crops in the three provinces of Northeast China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(6): 1−16. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230692

气候变化对中国东北三省主要粮食作物影响研究综述

Review of research on the impacts of climate change on staple grain crops in the three provinces of Northeast China

  • 摘要: 全球气候变化已经成为事实, 并且导致全球粮食危机和饥饿风险增加。东北三省作为我国主要的粮食生产基地, 对气候变化十分敏感。本文梳理了当前及未来气候变化对东北三省玉米、水稻和大豆生产影响的相关研究, 概括了当前主要研究方法、东北三省主要作物对气候变化的响应以及应对措施, 并进一步评述了当前主要研究方法和研究领域的不足: 1)研究气候变化和极端气候事件对作物生长发育和产量影响的主要方法包括田间试验法、统计分析法以及作物模型法, 其中田间试验法结果最直观, 统计分析法可操作强、应用范围最广, 作物模型法机理性强。2)东北三省气候变化明显, 并且随着气候变化, 干旱逐渐取代低温冷害成为当地主要灾害。3)气候变化对东北三省作物生产整体是有利的。气候变暖改善了东北三省热量资源, 不仅使作物种植区域逐渐北移, 作物品种也逐渐从早中熟向中晚熟转变。4)随着气候变暖不断加剧, 未来东北地区作物应选择耐高温、抗旱和抗寒等抗逆性强的品种; 加强农田水利设施建设, 增强应对干旱洪涝灾害的能力; 采用新的农业管理措施, 保护土壤健康以及粮食生产安全。5)未来需要加强对CO2补偿效应以及病虫害等的研究, 加强对作物模型的完善, 以更好地应对气候变化对粮食安全的不利影响。

     

    Abstract: The reality of global climate change has already led to food crises and increased risk of starvation in some parts of the world. As a major grain production region, the three provinces of Northeast China are particularly vulnerable to climate change. In this article, we categorize the effects of climate change and extreme climate events on the production of maize, rice, and soybean in the three provinces of Northeast China. We then summarize the main research methods used to study climate change and its effects on staple grain crops as well as countermeasures to climate change, and further review the challenges of the major research methodologies and fields. 1) Statistical analysis, crop modeling, and field experiments were the main techniques used to investigate how climate change and extreme climate events affect crop growth and yield. Although crop modeling and field experiments offered the most powerful mechanistic insights, statistical analysis was the most extensively used practical approach. 2) Climate change is evident in the three provinces of Northeast China, whereas drought has steadily replaced low-temperature freezing damage as the main agricultural disaster over time. 3) Climate change has been favorable to crop yield in the three provinces of Northeast China, with global warming improving heat resources. Crop-growing areas are gradually moving northward, and varieties are undergoing a shift from early-medium maturity to medium-late maturity. 4) As global warming continues to intensify, it will be crucial to opt for crop varieties in the future that demonstrate robust resilience to high temperatures, drought, cold, and other environmental challenges. Additionally, agricultural irrigation systems should be enhanced to ensure resilience against drought and flood disasters. To safeguard the health of the soil and ensure food security, new agricultural management techniques should also be considered. 5) Research on CO2 compensation, pests and diseases, and the improvement of crop models need to be intensified and enhanced to better address the adverse impacts of climate change on food security.

     

/

返回文章
返回