杨颂祺, 张楠楠, 柏兆海, 王选, 马林. 京津冀农牧业氮素环境排放特征和脆弱风险评价[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(6): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230732
引用本文: 杨颂祺, 张楠楠, 柏兆海, 王选, 马林. 京津冀农牧业氮素环境排放特征和脆弱风险评价[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(6): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230732
YANG S Q, ZHANG N N, BAI Z H, WANG X, MA L. Analysis of vulnerable level and characteristics of nitrogen losses from agricultural and livestock production system in Jing-Jin-Ji Region[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(6): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230732
Citation: YANG S Q, ZHANG N N, BAI Z H, WANG X, MA L. Analysis of vulnerable level and characteristics of nitrogen losses from agricultural and livestock production system in Jing-Jin-Ji Region[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(6): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230732

京津冀农牧业氮素环境排放特征和脆弱风险评价

Analysis of vulnerable level and characteristics of nitrogen losses from agricultural and livestock production system in Jing-Jin-Ji Region

  • 摘要: 为满足人们日益增长的食物需求, 农牧系统发展迅速, 进而导致源于农牧生产系统的氮素损失增加, 给生态环境和人体健康带来巨大威胁, 因此农牧系统精准优化调控具有重要意义。农牧系统氮素损失风险评价则是系统精准优化调控的重要前提。鉴于此, 本文利用NUFER-county模型对京津冀地区农牧业氮素环境排放进行估算, 并根据《河北省现代农业发展“十三五”规划》划定的京津冀5个农业生态功能区, 结合文献综述, 确定不同地区不同形态氮素损失风险阈值, 并划定该地区氮素损失风险脆弱区, 从而实现根据区域功能分区进行区域尺度不同形态氮素损失风险的精准划定。本研究发现, 京津冀地区农牧系统总氮损失约为1570.01 t, 单位面积氮素损失量为221.64 kg·hm−2, 氮素损失风险总体较高, 所有区域均存在风险。就空间分布来看, 氮素损失较为严重的地区为山前平原高产区、生态涵养山区和都市高值农业区, 且不同形态氮素损失拥有相似的空间变异规律, 主要与当地的农业生产强度、化肥施用量和畜禽养殖量有关。此外, 京津冀地区整体来看, 氨挥发损失风险较高, 硝酸盐损失风险相对较低。基于以上内容, 未来可以针对京津冀不同农业生态功能区的氮素损失风险区进行分区分步优化, 积极推广应用农牧业氮素分区精准管理调控措施, 降低并尽可能消除农牧业导致的氮素损失风险, 这对于该地区农牧业未来的绿色可持续发展具有重要意义。

     

    Abstract: To meet the increasing demand for food, agricultural and livestock production systems have been developed and intensified rapidly in recent years. Meanwhile, the separation of agricultural and livestock systems is becoming severe, leading to a higher risk of nitrogen loss (mainly from ammonia and nitrate) from agricultural and livestock systems, posing a significant threat to the ecological environment and human health. Accurate optimization and regulation of agricultural and livestock production systems are important pathways for achieving sustainable development of China’s agricultural and livestock production in the future, and this requires an accurate evaluation of the environmental risk threshold and delineation of vulnerable areas. Current evaluations of the environmental impacts of agricultural and livestock production systems in China usually focus only on a single accounting method and are restricted by crop nutrient demand, which lacks differentiated calculations for different agroecological zones. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) Region is an important region in China’s economy, culture and politics, with great potential for population and economic development, and its demand for agricultural and livestock products will further increase in the future. Therefore, this study divided the Jing-Jin-Ji Region into five agroecological zones: high-yield area in the piedmont plain, ecological conservation mountainous area, urban high-value agricultural area, middle- and low-yield area around Bohai Sea, and grassland pastoral area in Bashang. Based on a literature review, the thresholds for different forms of nitrogen loss were determined for different regions. Combined with the NUFER-county (NUtrient Flows in food chains, Environment, and Resource use at the county level) model, nitrogen losses from agriculture and livestock production systems in the Jing-Jin-Ji Region were estimated, and areas vulnerable to nitrogen losses were delineated in the region. The results of this study were as follows: The total nitrogen loss from agricultural and livestock production systems in Jing-Jin-Ji Region in 2017 was 1570.01 t, and the nitrogen loss per unit area was 221.64 kg·hm–2. The risk of nitrogen loss in the study region was generally high, and the vulnerability risk levels varied across different regions. Nearly 99.37% and 93.09% of the entire region were identified as vulnerable area to ammonia emissions and nitrate losses, respectively. From a spatial distribution perspective, areas with severe nitrogen losses were high-yield area in the piedmont plain, ecological conservation mountainous area, and urban high-value agricultural area; different forms of nitrogen loss had similar spatial variation patterns. In addition, the risk of ammonia emission loss was relatively high, while the risk of nitrate loss was relatively low. Therefore, it is of great significance for the future green and sustainable development of agricultural and livestock production systems in the Jing-Jin-Ji agroecological zone to optimize the vulnerable areas of nitrogen losses through spatial planning and to actively promote precise management and regulation measures to reduce nitrogen losses in agricultural and livestock production systems.

     

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