肖作敏, 刘鹏祺, 史晴雯, 王明阳, 吴语潇, 陈卓, 营浩, 丛汶峰. 洱海流域水稻氮足迹与减排潜力预测[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230748
引用本文: 肖作敏, 刘鹏祺, 史晴雯, 王明阳, 吴语潇, 陈卓, 营浩, 丛汶峰. 洱海流域水稻氮足迹与减排潜力预测[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230748
XIAO Z M, LIU P Q, SHI Q W, WANG M Y, WU Y X, CHEN Z, YING H, CONG W F. Rice nitrogen footprint and prediction of emission reduction potential in Erhai Lake Basin[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230748
Citation: XIAO Z M, LIU P Q, SHI Q W, WANG M Y, WU Y X, CHEN Z, YING H, CONG W F. Rice nitrogen footprint and prediction of emission reduction potential in Erhai Lake Basin[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230748

洱海流域水稻氮足迹与减排潜力预测

Rice nitrogen footprint and prediction of emission reduction potential in Erhai Lake Basin

  • 摘要: 协同环境保护和粮食安全对于流域农业高质量发展具有重要意义。水稻是我国第一大粮食作物, 在湖泊流域广泛种植, 然而以往对全流域水稻氮的研究往往忽视了排放因子的空间异质性, 且通过田间综合技术优化对水稻增产与减排潜力的影响尚不清楚。本研究以洱海流域为典型案例, 基于洱海全域农户调研数据, 运用生命周期评价与随机森林模型方法系统评估流域水稻生产的氮(N)足迹; 并基于西南地区的田间试验预测该流域的水稻生产的减排潜力。结果表明: 洱海流域水稻平均产量为8598.5 kg∙hm−2, 平均氮肥投入量为222.0 kg(N)∙hm−2, 主要以洱海北部和西部区域较高。平均活性氮损失为55.1 kg(N)∙hm−2, 其中氧化亚氮(N2O)排放、氨(NH3)挥发、氮(N)径流和氮(N)淋洗分别占比0.8%、61.3%、15.1%和22.9%; 从空间分布特征来看, 洱海北部和西部具有较高的环境风险。结合区域水稻种植面积, 流域水稻活性氮损失为440 t。通过随机森林模型预测, 洱海流域水稻种植可减少22.9%的活性氮损失, 同时增加21.1%的产量。该研究可为探索湖泊流域水稻绿色生产可持续氮素管理提供依据。

     

    Abstract: Collaborative environmental protection and food security is of great significance for the high-quality development of agriculture in the Lake basin. Rice, as the primary grain crop in China, is widely planted in lake basins. However, previous studies on nitrogen (N) in rice across entire basins often ignored the spatial heterogeneity of emission factors, and the impact of field-integrated technological optimization on rice yield increase and emission reduction remains unclear. This study aims to clarify the current status and reduction potential of N fertilizer in the Erhai basin rice planting system using survey data from 194 households and 322 literature sources on reactive nitrogen loss. Life cycle assessment and random forest models were employed for a comprehensive evaluation. And for the emission reduction and increased production potential of this basin was predicted based on 836 point-year field experiments in the southwest region. Results showed that the average rice yield was 8598.5 kg·hm-2, with an average N fertilizer input of 222.0 kg (N)∙hm−2. The types of N fertilizer used included chemical and organic sources, with an average application of 95.6 kg(N)∙hm−2 for chemical N and 126.4 kg(N)∙hm−2 for organic N, accounting for 56.9% of the total N fertilizer application. Region with high N input and surplus areas were mainly located in the northern part, including Zibihu, Fengyu town, and Yousuo town, as well as the western part, including Shangguan, Xizhou, Wanqiao, and Yinqiao Town, and Haidong Town in the eastern areas. The average N losses was 55.1 kg(N)∙hm−2, with nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, ammonia (NH3) volatilization, surface runoff and leaching accounted for 0.8%, 61.3%, 15.1% and 22.9%, respectively. Spatial distribution characteristics indicated at higher environmental risk in the northern and western area. Combined with the rice planting area, the total N losses was 440 t. The random forest model predicted that the rice production system could reduce N losses by 22.9% by using only 80% of N fertilizer, and increase rice yield by 21.1%. Compared to traditional farming, optimized technology can reduce N input by 428.5 t and reduce N losses by 105.6 t. By implementing optimized technology, the rice planting system in the Erhai Lake basin could achieve increased yield, efficiency, and reduced emissions, providing a good reference for the green and high-quality development of basin agriculture.

     

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