董明, 张谦, 王燕, 王树林, 冯国艺, 梁青龙, 祁虹, 赵贵元. 棉-粮-油菜宽带轮作提升作物产量和光能利用率[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230753
引用本文: 董明, 张谦, 王燕, 王树林, 冯国艺, 梁青龙, 祁虹, 赵贵元. 棉-粮-油菜宽带轮作提升作物产量和光能利用率[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230753
DONG M, ZHANG Q, WANG Y, WANG S L, FENG G Y, LIANG Q L, QI H, ZHAO G Y. Broadband crop rotation of cotton-grain-rape improved crop yield and light utilization efficiency[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230753
Citation: DONG M, ZHANG Q, WANG Y, WANG S L, FENG G Y, LIANG Q L, QI H, ZHAO G Y. Broadband crop rotation of cotton-grain-rape improved crop yield and light utilization efficiency[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230753

棉-粮-油菜宽带轮作提升作物产量和光能利用率

Broadband crop rotation of cotton-grain-rape improved crop yield and light utilization efficiency

  • 摘要: 棉-粮-油菜宽带轮作种植模式, 能够充分利用农田资源, 但种植体系内不同作物光能资源利用特性尚不明确。本研究在田间设置棉花单作(对照, T1)、小麦-玉米一年两熟(对照, T2)和棉-粮-油菜宽带轮作(T3) 3种种植模式, 测定棉花、玉米和小麦产量、地上部干物质重以及叶面积指数、消光系数、光能截获量等指标。结果表明, 与棉花单作比较, 棉花宽带轮作单位面积产量和地上部干物重分别显著增加15.20%和10.35%。与小麦-玉米一年两熟比较, 玉米和小麦宽带轮作的单位面积产量分别显著增加21.61%和11.53%,玉米地上部干物质重显著增加6.17%。7月16日(盛花期)至9月13日(吐絮期), 棉花宽带轮作叶面积指数比棉花单作显著增加12.76%、8.13%、9.42%、11.16%、7.51%和7.21%, 7月24日(盛花期)至8月4日(盛铃期), 棉花宽带轮作光能截获率比棉花单作分别显著降低3.59%和3.24%。玉米和小麦宽带轮作的叶面积指数、消光系数和光能截获率未发生显著变化。与棉花单作、小麦-玉米一年两熟比较, 棉花宽带轮作的全生育期光能截获量显著降低3.14%、玉米宽带轮作的全生育期光能截获量显著增加0.76%, 小麦宽带轮作的全生育期光能截获量未发生显著变化, 棉花、玉米和小麦的光能利用率分别显著增加18.81%、6.76%和14.10%。本试验条件下, 边行优势和轮作效应同时发挥作用增加棉花、玉米和小麦的单位面积产量以及棉花和玉米的地上部干物质重, 改善作物干物质的积累和分配, 进而提升棉花、玉米和小麦的光能利用率。该研究明确了棉-粮-油菜宽带轮作对作物产量和冠层光能利用率的影响, 可为该模式的推广应用提供理论基础。

     

    Abstract: Cotton-grain-rape broadband crop rotation can efficiently utilize farmland resources; however, the utilization characteristics of the light energy resources of different crops in this planting system are still unclear. Three treatments were used in this study: cotton monoculture (T1), wheat-maize rotation (T2) and broadband crop rotation of cotton-grain-rape (T3). The yields of cotton, maize, and wheat, and dry matter weight, leaf area index, extinction coefficient, light energy interception, and other indicators were determined. Compared with T1 and T2, T3 increased the yields of cotton, maize, and wheat by 15.20%, 21.61%, and 11.53%, respectively. The dry weights of cotton and maize increased by 10.35% and 6.17%, respectively. From July 16th to September 13th, the leaf area index significantly increased by 12.76%, 8.13%, 9.42%, 11.16%, 7.51% and 7.21%, respectively, compared to that of T1. From July 24th to August 4th, the light interception rate of cotton significantly decreased by 3.59% and 3.24%, respectively, compared to that of T1. The leaf area index, extinction coefficient, and PAR interception efficiencies of maize and wheat did not differ significantly. Compared with T1 and T2, the light interception of the entire growth period of cotton was reduced by 3.14% in T3, while the light interception of the entire growth period of maize increased by 0.76% significantly. No significant difference was noted in light interception throughout the wheat growth period. The light-use efficiencies of cotton, maize, and wheat increased significantly by 18.81%, 6.76%, and 14.10%, respectively. In this experiment, the edge row advantage and rotation effect simultaneously increased the yield of cotton, maize, and wheat as well as the aboveground dry matter weight of cotton and maize, improved the accumulation and distribution of crop dry matter, and thereby enhanced the light energy utilization efficiency of cotton, maize, and wheat. This study clarified the effects of cotton-grain-rape broadband crop rotation on the yield and canopy light energy utilization of cotton, maize, and wheat, providing a theoretical basis for the promotion and application of this model.

     

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