郭彩霞, 黄高鉴, 王永亮, 郭军玲, 杨治平. 不同氮效率春玉米品种临界氮浓度稀释曲线建立与验证[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240021
引用本文: 郭彩霞, 黄高鉴, 王永亮, 郭军玲, 杨治平. 不同氮效率春玉米品种临界氮浓度稀释曲线建立与验证[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240021
GUO C X, HUANG G J, WANG Y L, GUO J L, YANG Z P. Construction and verification of critical nitrogen dilution curve for spring maize varieties with different nitrogen efficiencies[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240021
Citation: GUO C X, HUANG G J, WANG Y L, GUO J L, YANG Z P. Construction and verification of critical nitrogen dilution curve for spring maize varieties with different nitrogen efficiencies[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(0): 1−11. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240021

不同氮效率春玉米品种临界氮浓度稀释曲线建立与验证

Construction and verification of critical nitrogen dilution curve for spring maize varieties with different nitrogen efficiencies

  • 摘要: 采用田间定位试验, 以山西省晋中地区春玉米各生育时期地上部干物质量与植株氮浓度的变化规律, 建立春玉米临界氮浓度稀释曲线模型, 为实现春玉米绿色增产与氮素管理提供理论依据。本研究以玉米品种‘郑单958’和‘大丰26’为试验材料, 设4个施氮量处理: 0 kg(N)∙hm−2 (N0)、120 kg(N)∙hm−2 (N120)、240 kg(N)∙hm−2 (N240)和360 kg(N)∙hm−2 (N360), 于2014—2016年在山西农业大学东阳试验基地开展3年定位施氮试验, 在春玉米拔节期(V6)、抽雄期(VT)、灌浆期(R2)、成熟期(R6)采集植株样品, 分析两个春玉米品种在不同施氮量处理下地上部干物质量、产量和各生育时期植株氮浓度, 以不同生育时期干物质累积量和植株氮浓度, 建立并验证两个春玉米品种的临界氮浓度稀释曲线模型。结果表明, ‘郑单958’氮素利用率高于‘大丰26’。两个春玉米品种在各生育时期地上部干物质量和产量均随施氮量呈增加趋势, 地上部干物质量在N240和N360处理差异不显著, 籽粒产量在N240处理达到最大值; 植物氮浓度随施氮量而增加, 随春玉米生育进程推进与地上部干物质量呈幂指数关系。依据春玉米地上部干物质量(Md)与其对应的植株氮浓度(CN)变化关系, 建立两个春玉米品种的临界氮浓度稀释曲线模型: ‘郑单958’ CN=30.457Md0.292, ‘大丰26’ CN=33.249Md0.333。相比‘大丰26’的模型参数, ‘郑单958’的模型参数a降低8.40%, 参数b降低12.31%; ‘郑单958’和‘大丰26’模型均方根误差(RMSE)分别为1.71 g∙kg−1和1.54 g∙kg−1, 标准化均方根误差(n-RMSE)分别为9.25%和8.27%, 表明模型稳定性较好。氮营养指数在同一生育时期随施氮量增加呈上升趋势, 随生育时期推进呈先增加后降低趋势, 与各生育时期的相对干物质量呈显著线性相关, 与相对产量呈显著的一元二次曲线关系。本研究建立的晋中地区两个春玉米品种的临界氮浓度稀释曲线模型及各生育时期氮营养指数, 可用于春玉米生育时期营养状况的诊断和评估, 结合施氮量与产量的关系, 推荐该试验区域‘郑单958’施氮量为189.16~224.08 kg∙hm−2, ‘大丰26’ 施氮量为199.72~214.67 kg∙hm−2

     

    Abstract: This study investigated the effects of varying nitrogen application rates on spring maize to establish a critical nitrogen dilution curve based on the variations in aboveground dry matter weight and nitrogen concentration at different growth stages of spring maize varieties. The aim is to provide theoretical basis for sustainable development and the rational application of nitrogen fertilizer of spring maize in central area of Shanxi Province, China. Field experiments with maize varieties ‘Zhengdan958’ (ZD958) and ‘Dafeng26’ (DF26) as test materials were conducted at the Dongyang Experiment Base of Shanxi Agricultural University from 2014 to 2016. Four treatments of nitrogen application rates were set, which were 0 kg(N)∙hm−2 (N0), 120 kg(N)∙hm−2 (N120), 240 kg(N)∙hm−2 (N240) and 360 kg(N)∙hm−2 (N360). Plant samples were collected at jointing (V6), tasseling (VT), filling (R2), and maturity (R6) stage, and the aboveground dry matter weight, yield and nitrogen concentration at each growth stage were analyzed for both spring maize varieties under different nitrogen application rates. The critical nitrogen concentration dilution curve model of two spring maize varieties were established and verified based on the aboveground dry matter weight and plant nitrogen concentration at various growth stages. Results showed that ZD958 exhibited a higher nitrogen utilization rate than DF26. For both spring maize varieties, aboveground dry matter weight and yield increased with the nitrogen application rate at each growth stage. However, there was no significant difference in aboveground dry matter weight between N240 and N360 treatments, and the grain yield would no longer increase when it reached the maximum under N240 treatment. Nitrogen concentration increased with the amount of nitrogen applied and showed a power exponential relationship with the growth period of aboveground dry matter weight. Based on the relationship between aboveground dry matter weight (Md) and nitrogen concentration (CN) of spring maize, the critical nitrogen concentration dilution curve model were established as follows: for ZD958 CN=30.457 Md0.292, DF26 CN=33.249Md0.333. Compared with the model parameters of DF26, the parameter a of ZD958 decreased by 8.40%, its parameter b decreased by 12.31%. The relatively stable model had a linear correlation between the fitted and actual plant nitrogen concentrations, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.71 and 1.54, and a standard root mean square error (n-RMSE) of 9.25% and 8.27%, respectively. The nitrogen nutrition index calculated from the critical nitrogen concentration curves increased with the nitrogen application within the same growth stage, with a trend of initially increasing and then decreasing with growth period. There was significant linear correlation between nitrogen nutrition index and relative aboveground dry matter weight at each growth stage, while the relationship between the nitrogen nutrition index and relative yield followed a single quadratic curve. These results suggest that nitrogen nutrition index can be used to diagnose the nitrogen nutrition status of spring maize. In conclusion, the established critical nitrogen concentration dilution curve model and nitrogen nutrition index for two spring maize varieties can be utilized to diagnose and evaluate the nutritional status of spring maize during its growth stage. Based on the relationship between nitrogen application rate and yield, it is recommended that the nitrogen application rate for ZD958 should be between 189.16−224.08 kg(N)·hm−2, and for DF26 between 199.72−214.67 kg·hm−2.

     

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