刘瀚文, 栾好安, 张亦涛, 习斌, 董奎军, 王伟军. 旱地农田氮磷淋溶发生特征研究进展[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(11): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240040
引用本文: 刘瀚文, 栾好安, 张亦涛, 习斌, 董奎军, 王伟军. 旱地农田氮磷淋溶发生特征研究进展[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(11): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240040
LIU H W, LUAN H A, ZHANG Y T, XI B, DONG K J, WANG W J. Research progress on the occurrence characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus leaching in dryland farmland[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(11): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240040
Citation: LIU H W, LUAN H A, ZHANG Y T, XI B, DONG K J, WANG W J. Research progress on the occurrence characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus leaching in dryland farmland[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(11): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240040

旱地农田氮磷淋溶发生特征研究进展

Research progress on the occurrence characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus leaching in dryland farmland

  • 摘要: 氮磷淋溶是旱地农业面源污染的主要形式, 直接导致水体污染风险尤其是地下水氮磷含量超标, 明确氮磷淋溶发生特征是制定针对性措施阻控农田养分流失的前提条件。本文利用文献计量学方法分析了1984—2022年国际农田氮磷淋溶研究热点, 论述当前主要淋溶监测方法及其优缺点, 总结了影响淋溶的关键因素及其所带来的环境效应, 探讨了氮磷淋溶研究存在的问题及未来研究方向。1984—2022年研究热点主要集中在不同水肥条件、管理方式下土壤氮素、磷素、硝酸盐等溶质的淋溶特征, NO3-N为氮素淋溶主要形态, 而磷多以难溶颗粒态固持在土壤中, 垂直迁移较少, 但随着磷肥用量增加, 淋溶逐渐成为磷损失的重要途径。当前的氮磷淋溶定量化方法主要包括原位实地监测和人工模拟降雨重塑淋溶过程, 每种方法均有其优缺点, 在研究过程中应当根据土壤、作物、目的等因地制宜的选择监测方法。受施肥、降雨灌溉、土壤类型和土地利用方式等因素影响, 各地农田氮磷淋溶风险不一, 主要农区肥料投入量大, 土壤氮磷盈余量、地下水污染情况较其他地区更严重, 环境风险仍十分严峻。未来面对极端气候变化, 应在评估地下水硝酸盐污染程度的同时加强旱地深层土壤微生物过程、驱动机理研究, 准确识别主要污染物类型从而进行针对防控, 继续研发适合长期、连续和与自然条件相似的监测方法, 综合运用原位监测、遥感、模型模拟等方法, 量化同一区域内不同土地利用方式氮磷淋溶贡献, 开展分类分区分级治理。

     

    Abstract: Nitrogen and phosphorus leaching is the main form of non−point source pollution in dryland agriculture, which directly leads to the risk of water pollution, especially the excessive content of nitrogen and phosphorus in groundwater. Clarifying the characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus leaching is a prerequisite for formulating targeted measures to control farmland nutrient loss. In this paper, by analyzing the relevant literature in this field, the research hotspots of nitrogen and phosphorus leaching in farmland at home and abroad in the past two decades were clarified. The main monitoring methods of leaching and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed, and the key factors affecting leaching and its environmental effects were summarized. Finally, the existing problems and future research directions of nitrogen and phosphorus leaching were discussed. In the past two decades, the leaching characteristics of soil nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrate and other solutes under different water and fertilizer conditions and management methods have been mainly concerned at home and abroad. Long−term excessive input of fertilizer is the main reason for the accumulation and leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil. Long−term excessive input of fertilizer leads to surplus. Some nitrogen is discharged into the atmosphere with ammonia, nitrous oxide and other gases, and some nitrogen and phosphorus enter rivers and groundwater with runoff and leaching. NO3-N was the main form of nitrogen leaching. Phosphorus is mostly immobilized in the soil in the form of insoluble particles, and the vertical migration is less. However, with the increase of phosphorus fertilizer, leaching has gradually become an important way of phosphorus loss. The current quantitative methods of nitrogen and phosphorus leaching mainly include in−situ field monitoring and artificial simulation of rainfall remodeling leaching process. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. In the research process, monitoring methods should be selected according to local conditions such as soil, crop and purpose. Affected by factors such as fertilization, rainfall irrigation, soil type and land use, the risk of nitrogen and phosphorus leaching in farmland varies from place to place. The amount of fertilizer input in the main agricultural areas is large, the surplus of soil nitrogen and phosphorus and the pollution of groundwater are more serious than other areas, and the environmental risk is still very serious. In the future, in the face of extreme climate change, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the microbial process and driving mechanism of deep soil in dryland while assessing the degree of nitrate pollution in groundwater, accurately identify the main pollutant types for prevention and control, continue to develop monitoring methods suitable for long−term, continuous and similar natural conditions, and comprehensively use in−situ monitoring, remote sensing, model simulation and other methods to quantify the nitrogen and phosphorus leaching contribution of different land use patterns in the same area, and carry out classification, zoning and grading management.

     

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