商春悦, 兰倩, 邓玉峰, 朱峰, 赵美丞, 王海岗. 不同驯化阶段谷子对氮胁迫的生理响应及耐低氮综合评价[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(11): 1−9. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240051
引用本文: 商春悦, 兰倩, 邓玉峰, 朱峰, 赵美丞, 王海岗. 不同驯化阶段谷子对氮胁迫的生理响应及耐低氮综合评价[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(11): 1−9. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240051
SHANG C Y, LAN Q, DENG Y F, ZHU F, ZHAO M C, WANG H G. Comprehensive evaluation of physiological responses and low nitrogen tolerance of foxtail millet at different domestication stages[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(11): 1−9. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240051
Citation: SHANG C Y, LAN Q, DENG Y F, ZHU F, ZHAO M C, WANG H G. Comprehensive evaluation of physiological responses and low nitrogen tolerance of foxtail millet at different domestication stages[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(11): 1−9. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240051

不同驯化阶段谷子对氮胁迫的生理响应及耐低氮综合评价

Comprehensive evaluation of physiological responses and low nitrogen tolerance of foxtail millet at different domestication stages

  • 摘要: 提高作物耐贫瘠能力对于提高边际土地利用率具有重要意义。本试验选用3个不同驯化阶段(野生种、农家种和育成种)的24份谷子材料, 采用水培方法, 设置5个低氮浓度梯度处理0.05 mmol·L−1 NH4NO3 (N1)、0.1 mmol·L−1 NH4NO3 (N2)、0.2 mmol·L−1 NH4NO3 (N3)、0.4 mmol·L−1 NH4NO3 (N4)和1.0 mmol·L−1 NH4NO3 (N5), 以探究低氮胁迫对谷子生长发育的影响, 比较不同基因型谷子的综合耐低氮能力并鉴定高效的生理筛选指标。研究发现, 相对N2处理, 3个驯化阶段谷子的多个生理指标(除叶绿素外)在N3处理时均显著增长, 但野生种的株高、地上部干重、旗叶叶面积和地下部干重在N3 (0.2 mmol·L−1)时达到最大值后, 迅速趋于稳定, 而农家种与育成种的相应指标则继续增加, 暗示驯化提高了谷子对氮素需求的饱和阈值; 基于耐低氮系数综合评价发现, 野生种的耐低氮性优于农家种和育成种; 主成分分析(PCA)揭示, 在低氮胁迫下, 野生种与农家种、育成种的生理表型均存在明显差异, 其中地上部干重、地下部干重和根体积在分析中表现出较大载荷值, 占据了数据变异解释的显著比例, 能够有效反映不同驯化程度谷子的低氮耐受性。这些结果表明驯化降低了谷子对于低氮胁迫的耐受性; 地上部干重因其检测便捷且与谷子耐低氮响应紧密相关, 因此可作为大规模筛选耐低氮谷子品种的首选表型指标。我们的研究为谷子耐贫瘠品种的高效筛选提供了参考依据。

     

    Abstract: Enhancing the tolerance of crops to infertile conditions is crucial for improving the utilization rate of marginal lands. In this experiment, 24 foxtail millet samples from three different domestication stages (wild, landrace, and cultivated) were selected. The hydroponic setup with five low nitrogen concentration gradients was employed: 0.05 mmol·L−1 NH4NO3 (N1), 0.1 mmol·L−1 NH4NO3 (N2), 0.2 mmol·L−1 NH4NO3 (N3), 0.4 mmol·L−1 NH4NO3 (N4), and 1.0 mmol·L−1 NH4NO3 (N5), to compare the comprehensive low-nitrogen tolerance ability among the different genotypes of foxtail millet, and to identify efficient physiological indicators for germplasm resource screening. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the tolerance of foxtail millet at different domestication stages to low nitrogen stress, providing an important preliminary basis for the exploitation of foxtail millet germplasm resources and genes resistant to low nitrogen. Our findings found that all the tested physiological indicators excluding chlorophyll from three domestication stages of foxtail millet showed significant increases at N3 treatment compared to N2 treatment. However, the plant height, above-ground dry weight, flag leaf area, and underground dry weight of the wild species reached their maximum values at N3 (0.2 mmol·L−1) and then rapidly stabilized, while those indicators from landrace species and cultivar species continued to increase, Wild species have a lower demand for nitrogen compared to landrace species and cultivar species, suggests that low nitrogen tolerance in foxtail millet has been reduced during domestication and breeding, and that the threshold of nitrogen concentration required to maintain normal growth has been increasing. Based on the comprehensive evaluation using the nitrogen tolerance coefficient, it was found that the wild species has better nitrogen tolerance than the landrace species and cultivar species. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed significant differences in those phenotypes between wild species and landrace species and cultivar species under low nitrogen stress, with above-ground dry weight, below-ground dry weight, and root volume showing high loadings and accounting for a significant proportion of data variance. Thus, the physiological indicators and the results derived from the principal component analysis (PCA) effectively reflect the varying degrees of low-nitrogen tolerance exhibited by foxtail millet across its different domestication levels. These results demonstrate that domestication has reduced foxtail millet’s tolerance to low nitrogen stress. Above-ground dry weight, due to its convenient detection and close correlation with foxtail millet’s response to low nitrogen, can be used as a preferred phenotypic indicator for large-scale screening of low nitrogen-tolerant foxtail millet varieties in future. Our study provides a reference for efficient screening of foxtail millet varieties to infertile conditions.

     

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