程明琨, 闵炬, 张艳颖, 王雨荷, 郝雅琼, 施卫明. 降雨强度及有机无机肥配施对太湖地区典型菜地氮磷动态流失过程的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(10): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240090
引用本文: 程明琨, 闵炬, 张艳颖, 王雨荷, 郝雅琼, 施卫明. 降雨强度及有机无机肥配施对太湖地区典型菜地氮磷动态流失过程的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(10): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240090
CHENG M K, MIN J, ZHANG Y Y, WANG Y H, HAO Y Q, SHI W M. Effects of rainfall intensity and combined fertilizer application on the dynamic process of nitrogen and phosphorus loss in typical vegetable plots in the Taihu Lake region[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(10): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240090
Citation: CHENG M K, MIN J, ZHANG Y Y, WANG Y H, HAO Y Q, SHI W M. Effects of rainfall intensity and combined fertilizer application on the dynamic process of nitrogen and phosphorus loss in typical vegetable plots in the Taihu Lake region[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(10): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240090

降雨强度及有机无机肥配施对太湖地区典型菜地氮磷动态流失过程的影响

Effects of rainfall intensity and combined fertilizer application on the dynamic process of nitrogen and phosphorus loss in typical vegetable plots in the Taihu Lake region

  • 摘要: 以往的研究多关注菜地氮磷径流流失系数、流失量的研究, 对菜地氮磷径流流失动态过程研究尚缺乏, 为此选择在降雨频繁、径流发生量高的太湖地区, 开展降雨强度及有机无机肥配施对菜地氮磷流失过程影响的研究, 为太湖地区菜地氮磷面源污染防控提供科学依据。本试验采用田间模拟降雨的方法, 设置55 mm∙h∙L−1和110 mm∙h∙L−1两个降雨强度, 不施氮(-N)、不施磷(-P)、施纯化肥(N+P)、有机无机肥配施(1/4MN+1/3MP)和施纯有机肥(MN+MP)5个处理, 观测不同降雨强度及施肥处理下径流氮磷各组分浓度随时间的变化特征和对氮磷径流失量的影响。结果表明: 与N+P处理相比, 1/4MN+1/3MP处理可使径流初损历时延后6.2 min。在产流0~25 min, 各处理径流总氮浓度在5.7~25.1 mg∙L−1间波动; 产流25~60 min, 各处理径流总氮浓度在5.3~14.0 mg∙L−1间波动。在55 mm∙h∙L−1和110 mm∙h∙L−1降雨强度下, N+P和MN+MP处理的总氮流失量最高, 与其相比, 1/4MN+1/3MP能减少21.9%~44.7%的总氮流失。产流0~35 min, 各处理径流总磷浓度在0.31~3.2 mg∙L−1间波动; 产流35~60 min, 各处理总磷浓度在0.35~1.60 mg∙L−1间波动。在55 mm∙h∙L−1和110 mm∙h∙L−1降雨强度下, MN+MP处理总磷流失量最高, 与MN+MP处理相比, 1/4MN+1/3MP可减少65.4%~69.0%的总磷流失。综上, 1/4MN+1/3MP处理可延长初损历时; 在产流0~25 min和0~35 min分别是控制径流氮和磷流失的关键时期, 有机无机肥配施可有效减少氮磷流失。

     

    Abstract: Although previous studies have focused on the coefficients of nitrogen and phosphorus runoff loss and the amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus lost from vegetable fields, there is a lack of research examining the dynamic process characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus runoff loss from vegetable fields. In this study, we investigated the effects of rainfall intensity and the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the process of nitrogen and phosphorus loss from vegetagel fields in the Taihu Lake region. This study was conducted to provide scientific evidence for preventing and controlling nitrogen and phosphorus surface pollution in vegetable fields in the Taihu Lake region, where rainfall is frequent, and the amount of runoff is high. For this purpose, we established two intensities of field-simulated rainfall (55 and 110 mm∙h−1) and set the following five fertilizer treatments: no nitrogen (-N) and no phosphorus (-P) controls, application of pure chemical fertilizer (N+P), combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers (1/4MN+1/3MP), and application of pure organic fertilizer (MN+MP). The dynamic changes in the concentrations of each form of nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff over time and the total nitrogen and phosphorus runoff loss under different rainfall intensities and fertilizer application treatments were monitored. The results revealed that compared with the N+P treatment, the 1/4MN+1/3MP treatment delayed the initial runoff production time by 6.2 min. During the initial 25 min of runoff, the total nitrogen concentration of runoff among treatments fluctuated between 5.7 and 25.1 mg∙L−1, whereas, during the 25−60-min period of runoff, the total nitrogen concentration of different treatments fluctuated between 5.3 and 14.0 mg∙L−1. The highest total nitrogen concentration in runoff was detected in the N+P and MN+MP treatments at rainfall intensities of 55 and 110 mm∙h−1, respectively; and the 1/4MN+1/3MP treatment reduced the total nitrogen runoff loss by 21.9%−44.7%. During the 0–35-min period of runoff, the total phosphorus concentration of runoff in different treatments fluctuated between 0.31 and 3.2 mg∙L−1, whereas during the 35−60-min period, the total phosphorus concentration of runoff in the treatments fluctuated between 0.35 and 1.6 mg∙L−1. The highest concentration of total phosphorus in runoff was detected in the MN+MP treatments at both assessed rainfall intensities. Compared with the MN+MP treatment, the 1/4MN+1/3MP treatment reduced the total phosphorus runoff loss by 65.4%−69.0%. In summary, the 1/4MN+1/3MP treatment applied in this study can prolong the duration of the initial loss of nitrogen and phosphorus, with the initial periods of 0−25- and 0−35-min being identified as the key periods for controlling nitrogen and phosphorus loss in runoff, respectively. Moreover, the combined application organic and inorganic fertilizers was found to effectively reduce the runoff loss of nitrogen and phosphorus.

     

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