孔猛, 黄明镜, 张冬梅, 贺亭峰, 李洁, 李凤民. 黄土高原半干旱区覆膜和施磷对紫花苜蓿草地土壤磷组分的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(0): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240189
引用本文: 孔猛, 黄明镜, 张冬梅, 贺亭峰, 李洁, 李凤民. 黄土高原半干旱区覆膜和施磷对紫花苜蓿草地土壤磷组分的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(0): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240189
KONG M, HUANG M J, ZHANG D M, HE T F, LI J, LI F M. The effects of film mulch and phosphorus application on soil phosphorus fractions in alfalfa grassland in the semi-arid Loess Plateau[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(0): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240189
Citation: KONG M, HUANG M J, ZHANG D M, HE T F, LI J, LI F M. The effects of film mulch and phosphorus application on soil phosphorus fractions in alfalfa grassland in the semi-arid Loess Plateau[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(0): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240189

黄土高原半干旱区覆膜和施磷对紫花苜蓿草地土壤磷组分的影响

The effects of film mulch and phosphorus application on soil phosphorus fractions in alfalfa grassland in the semi-arid Loess Plateau

  • 摘要: 在黄土高原半干旱区, 较低的土壤磷(P)有效性限制了紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)的生长。阐明连续覆膜和施磷对苜蓿草地土壤磷组分的影响对合理施磷和提高苜蓿草地生产力具有重要意义。试验设置2个覆膜处理(不覆膜和覆膜)和4个磷肥梯度0、9.7、19.2和28.8 kg(P) hm−2, 研究了覆膜和施磷在不同处理年限(3年和9年)对紫花苜蓿草地不同活性土壤磷组分及其影响因素的影响。结果表明, 与不覆膜相比, 覆膜处理第3年紫花苜蓿地上部分磷吸收量显著增加52.4%, 土壤Olsen P、活性较高的NaHCO3-Po和NaHCO3-Pi以及中等活性的NaOH-Pi含量分别显著降低15.5%、20.2%、10.2%和27.9%; 覆膜处理第9年土壤NaHCO3-Po和NaHCO3-Pi含量显著增加37.3%和24.3%, 而地上部分磷吸收量、土壤Olsen P和NaOH-Pi含量没有显著变化。与不覆膜相比, 无论处理年限长短, 覆膜均显著降低了活性较低的稀HCl-Pi含量, 显著提高了土壤NaOH-Po、浓HCl-Po和残留态磷(Residual-P)含量, 而对浓HCl-Pi和全磷含量没有显著影响。与不施磷相比, 除施磷处理第3年土壤残留态磷含量没有显著变化外, 施磷处理第3年和第9年苜蓿地上部分磷吸收量、土壤全磷、Olsen P以及所有磷组分含量均显著增加。冗余分析显示, 地上部分磷吸收量、土壤pH值和碱性磷酸酶活性是影响土壤磷组分变化的主要因素。与不覆膜相比, 覆膜处理在第3年和第9年显著增加了土壤碱性磷酸酶活性, 在第9年显著降低土壤pH值。与不施磷相比, 施磷处理在第3年和第9年显著降低了土壤pH值, 在第9年显著降低了土壤碱性磷酸酶活性。综上, 覆膜可通过降低土壤pH值和提高磷酸酶活性促进低活性磷组分向中、高活性磷组分转化, 所以将覆膜和施磷结合可有效地提高紫花苜蓿草地土壤磷有效性和供磷潜力, 且随着处理年限的延长, 效果愈加明显。

     

    Abstract: Low soil phosphorus (P) availability limits the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the semi-arid Loess Plateau. Understanding the effects of continuous film mulch and P application on soil P fractions in alfalfa grassland is crucial for optimizing P management and improving alfalfa productivity. Two mulch treatments (no film mulch and film mulch) and four P fertilizer gradients 0, 9.7, 19.2, and 28.8 kg(P)∙hm−2 were employed to study the effects of film mulch and P application on soil P fractions with different active and their determinants in alfalfa grassland over different treatment durations (years 3 and 9). The results revealed that, in comparison to no mulch no mulch, the mulch treatment significantly increased alfalfa shoot P uptake by 52.4% and decreased soil Olsen P, high-activity NaHCO3-Po and NaHCO3-Pi, and moderately-activity NaOH-Pi contents by 15.5%, 20.2%, 10.2% and 27.9% in year 3, respectively. In year 9, film mulch markedly increased soil NaHCO3-Po and NaHCO3-Pi contents by 37.3% and 24.3%, yet exhibited no significant effect on alfalfa shoot P uptake, soil Olsen P and NaOH-Pi content. Across both treatment years, film mulch consistently reduced the content of diluted HCl-Pi with low activity, and significantly increased soil NaOH-Po, concentrated HCl-Po, and residual-P contents, while exerting no significant effect on concentrated HCl-Pi and total P contents. Compared to no P application, P application significantly increased alfalfa shoot P uptake, soil total P, Olsen P, and all P fractions in years 3 and 9, with the exception of soil residual-P content in year 3. Redundancy analysis indicated that shoot P uptake, soil pH, and alkaline phosphatase activity were the main factors affecting the changes of soil P fractions. Film mulch significantly increased soil alkaline phosphatase activity in both years and decreased soil pH in year 9 relative to no mulch treatment. Compared to no P application, P application significantly decreased soil pH in years 3 and 9 and reduced soil alkaline phosphatase activity in year 9. In conclusion, film mulch can promote the transformation of low-activity P fractions into medium- and high-activity P fractions by reducing soil pH and enhancing phosphatase activity. Therefore, the combination of film mulch and P application can effectively improve the availability and supply potential of soil P in alfalfa grassland, with these benefits becoming increasing pronounced over time.

     

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