乔玉辉, 李强, 甄华杨, 冯旭, 张宝贵. 京郊有机作物种植的经济效益与环境影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(9): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240198
引用本文: 乔玉辉, 李强, 甄华杨, 冯旭, 张宝贵. 京郊有机作物种植的经济效益与环境影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(9): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240198
QIAO Y H, LI Q, ZHEN H Y, FENG X, ZHANG B G. Economic benefits and environment impacts of organic cropping in Beijing suburb area[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(9): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240198
Citation: QIAO Y H, LI Q, ZHEN H Y, FENG X, ZHANG B G. Economic benefits and environment impacts of organic cropping in Beijing suburb area[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(9): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20240198

京郊有机作物种植的经济效益与环境影响

Economic benefits and environment impacts of organic cropping in Beijing suburb area

  • 摘要: 随着城市居民对食品安全和环境保护的日益关注, 都市型有机种植业近年来得到了快速发展。明确都市型有机种植业发展现状、经济效益和环境影响, 对有机种植业可持续发展具有重要意义。本研究以北京市有机种植业(有机水果、蔬菜、薯类及薯芋类、坚果和谷物)为研究对象, 基于农场调研数据, 采用成本效益分析和生命周期评价(LCA)方法, 分别分析了有机作物生产的经济效益及其环境影响。本研究表明, 相比常规种植, 5种作物的有机种植减少了环境影响, 但是也降低了农作物的产量。由于有机生产较高的成本投入, 尽管有机种植增加了作物的利润, 但是其成本利润率却低于其对应的常规对照不同作物之间的经济与环境表现存在着较大的差异。相比常规种植, 有机种植减少环境影响(LCA综合指数), 各作物的减少幅度依次为薯类及薯芋类>坚果>蔬菜>水果>蔬菜。考虑到粮食安全(常规种植与有机种植的产量差), 消费者的负担能力(常规种植与有机种植的价格差)以及有机生产减少环境影响的幅度(LCA综合指数), 政府应对有机薯类及薯芋类作物生产加大补贴力度。相比于其他发达地区, 北京市的有机种植业发展规模仍处于较低水平, 北京市政府应当进一步采取政策措施鼓励有机农业的发展。本研究可为北京市针对有机农业制定生态补偿标准提供数据支持和依据。

     

    Abstract: With the increasing concern of urban residents for food safety and environmental protection, urban organic farming industry has developed rapidly in recent years. It is of great significance to clarify the development status, economic benefits and environmental impact of urban organic planting industry for the sustainable development of organic planting industry. In this study, we analyzed the economic benefits and environmental impacts of organic crop production based on farm survey data, cost-benefit analysis and life cycle assessment (LCA) based on farm survey data. This study showed that organic cultivation of five crops reduced environmental impact but also reduced crop yields compared to conventional crops. Due to the higher cost input of organic production, although organic cultivation increases the profitability of crops, its cost-to-profit ratio is lower than that of the corresponding conventional control. There are significant differences in the economic and environmental performance of different crops. Compared with conventional planting, organic cultivation reduced the environmental impact (LCA integrated index), and its decrease of different crops was potatoes and tubers> nuts> vegetables> fruits > vegetables. Taking into account food security (yield differences), consumer affordability (price differentials) and its reduces of environmental impact (LCA composite index), governments should increase subsidies for the production of organic potatoes and potato crops. Compared with other developed countries and regions, the scale of organic planting development in Beijing is still at a low level, and the Beijing Municipal Government should take further measures to encourage the development of organic agriculture. This study provides data support and basis for the formulation of ecological compensation standards for organic agriculture in Beijing.

     

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