冷浸田是我国江南地区主要的一类低产水田, 因其撂荒普遍, 但增产潜力巨大且自然生态条件优越而受到关注。冷浸田形成是气候、地形、水文、人为管理等综合作用形成的结果。受常年地表水和地下水浸渍影响, 冷浸田土壤物理、化学和生物学性质发生了系列变化, 呈现“冷、烂、毒、瘦”障碍特征, 如水土温度低、土壤浸水容重低、亚铁、有机酸及还原态硫等还原性物质含量高、有机碳含量高但活性有机碳及有效养分缺乏或失衡、微生物区系少等。通过稻田潜育层与土壤还原性物质、地下水位等指标可诊断冷浸田并可评价土壤质量。冷浸田的治理利用包括工程措施、农艺措施与生物措施等综合技术, 涉及明沟暗管、适生品种、水旱轮作、垄畦耕作、平衡施肥与土壤改良剂等。除了传统的水稻种植方式外, 因地制宜利用是提高冷浸田综合生产能力的有效措施。在总结前人基础上, 基于农业可持续发展观点, 展望了今后冷浸田治理利用的研究重点与对策建议, 包括研究不同渍水状态与干湿交替下土壤结构和土壤有机质组分差异; 加强长期渍水状态的冷浸田甲烷排放特征研究; 加强冷浸田潜育化过程厌气性的微生物与其产生的相关酶的生态学过程研究, 强化微生物学调控改良冷浸田; 此外应针对不同生态类型与生产条件的冷浸田加强技术集成与政策扶持。
Cold-waterlogged (CW) paddy fields are the main low-yield paddy fields in South China. CW paddy fields have attracted close attention as they belong to common derelict lands with huge potential for crop productivity and good ecological conditions. CW paddy fields are the products of the complex interaction of climate, topography, hydrology and anthropogenic activity. Influenced by years of surface water and groundwater dip, soil physicochemical and biological properties of CW paddy fields have shown huge variations in the degree of coldness, rottenness, toxicity and infertility. CW paddy fields have low-temperature waters, soils and immersed bulk density, excessive reducing substances and soil organic carbon, but also low active organic carbon, microflora and available nutrients or unbalanced nutrients. Soil quality of CW paddy fields can be diagnosed and assessed by gley horizons, soil reducing substances and groundwater levels. This study summarized the integrated management and utilization of CW paddy fields, including engineering, agronomic and biological measures. This included open ditch and hidden drainage tubes, suitable rice varieties, paddy-upland crop rotation, ridge cultivation, balanced fertilization, soil conditioning, etc. In addition to traditional rice cultivation, it was an effective measure to comprehensively improve production capacity by adapting local conditions to the utilization of CW paddy fields. Finally, there was clear need to put future research emphasis on the administration and utilization of CW paddy fields based on sustainable agricultural development. This include 1) studying the differences in soil structure and the composition of organic matter under different gleyic states and the alternation of drying and wetting; 2) Strengthening research on methane emission characteristics under long-term gleyic state in CW paddy fields; 3) Strengthening research on ecological processes of anaerobic microbes and production enzymes and regulating and improving CW paddy fields using micro-organisms; 4) There was also need to strengthen technological integration and policy support based on different ecological types and production conditions in CW paddy fields.