中国生态农业学报  2018, Vol. 26 Issue (6): 892-902  DOI: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170903 0

### 引用本文

ZHUO Z Q, XING A, SUN Z X, HUANG Y F, CAO M, LI Z, ZHANG S W. Synergies and trade-offs of agro-ecosystem in dry-farming areas in Northeast China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(6): 892-902. DOI: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170903

### 文章历史

1. 中国农业大学资源与环境学院 北京 100193;
2. 安徽理工大学地球与环境学院 淮南 232001

Synergies and trade-offs of agro-ecosystem in dry-farming areas in Northeast China*
ZHUO Zhiqing1, XING An1, SUN Zhongxiang1, HUANG Yuanfang1, CAO Meng1, LI Zhen1, ZHANG Shiwen2
1. College of Resources and Environment, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;
2. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001, China
*This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300801) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571217)
** Corresponding author, HUANG Yuanfang, E-mail:yfhuang@cau.edu.cn
Received Oct. 8, 2017; accepted Jan. 16, 2018
Abstract: In the process of transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture, the role of agriculture has been changing from single to multiple functions. Comprehensive evaluation of the degree of synergy of agro-ecosystems can guide sustainable regional development. The dry farming area in Northeast China is not only an important grain production base, but also a severe soil erosion area in China. Due to excessive long-term fertilizer application, unreasonable farming systems and management measures, agro-ecological environments in the dry farming areas have faced enormous pressure. In this research, the grain production and soil data for 85 counties in dry farming areas of Northeast China were used as basic materials, which included socio-economic data from agricultural statistics yearbooks of three northeastern provinces from 2005 to 2015 and soil physic-chemical parameters obtained from soil samples collected in the study area in May 2017. The spatial variations in synergy and trade-offs among agro-production functions, agro-living functions and agro-ecological functions of agro-ecosystem were analyzed based on the synergetic model and root mean square error (RMSE) at different time periods. The aim of this research was to reveal the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of the three agro-ecosystem functions stated above. The results showed that the degree of the synergy of agro-ecosystem was low for the dry farming areas in Northeast China, dropping by 0.12 for the period 2005-2015. The degrees of synergy of agro-production function and agro-ecological function were dropped by 0.03 and 0.45, respectively. However, the synergy degree of agro-living function increased slightly. Except for drying farming areas in Liaoning Province, the synergy degree of agro-ecosystem decreased significantly in Jilin Province and Heilongjiang Province, indicating that the synergy among three functions of agro-ecosystem was in disorder. There were spatial and temporal trade-off relationships among various functions of agro-ecosystem. For the period 2005-2010, the trade-offs between agro-production function and agro-ecological function, and between agro-living function and agro-ecological function benefited from the ecological function. However, the trade-offs benefited from the production functions and living functions for the period 2010-2015. The main reasons were the fluctuations in the trade-off relationships among three functions of agriculture and changes in the related benefit directions. It was suggested that the synergy degree of agro-ecosystem and the relationships among agro-production function, agro-living function and agro-ecological function were quantitatively describable using the synergetic model and root mean square error. It was an effective way of identifying the structural factors that caused changes in agro-ecosystems by the two methods. The results provided critical references for sustainable development of agro-ecosystem in the dry farming areas of Northeast China.
Key words: Dry farming areas in Northeast China     Agro-ecosystem     Agricultural production function     Agricultural ecological function     Agricultural living function     Synergetic development     Trade-off analysis

1 研究区概况

 图 1 东北旱作农业区分布图 Figure 1 Distribution of dry farming areas of Northeast China
2 数据来源及研究方法 2.1 数据来源

2.2 协同评价指标体系

2.3 协同函数

 ${\mathit{\boldsymbol{\delta }}_{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ji}}}}{\rm{(}}{\mathit{\boldsymbol{\lambda }}_{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ji}}}}{\rm{)}}\mathit{\boldsymbol{ = }}\left\{ {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}} {{\rm{(}}{\mathit{\boldsymbol{\lambda }}_{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ji}}}} - {\mathit{\boldsymbol{\beta }}_{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ji}}}}{\rm{)}}\mathit{\boldsymbol{/}}{\rm{(}}{\mathit{\boldsymbol{\alpha }}_{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ji}}}} - {\mathit{\boldsymbol{\beta }}_{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ji}}}}{\rm{) 正向}}}\\ {{\rm{(}}{\mathit{\boldsymbol{\alpha }}_{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ji}}}} - {\lambda _{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ji}}}}{\rm{)}}\mathit{\boldsymbol{/}}{\rm{(}}{\mathit{\boldsymbol{\alpha }}_{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ji}}}} - {\mathit{\boldsymbol{\beta }}_{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ji}}}}{\rm{) 逆向}}} \end{array}} \right.$ (1)

 $\begin{array}{*{20}{c}} {{\mathit{\boldsymbol{\eta }}_\mathit{\boldsymbol{j}}}{\rm{(}}{\mathit{\boldsymbol{\lambda }}_j}{\rm{)}}{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ = }}^m}\sqrt[{}]{{\prod\nolimits_{i = 1}^m {{\mathit{\boldsymbol{\eta }}_\mathit{\boldsymbol{j}}}{\rm{(}}{\mathit{\boldsymbol{\lambda }}_{\mathit{\boldsymbol{ji}}}}{\rm{)}}} }}}&{\mathit{\boldsymbol{j}} \ge {\rm{1;}}\;\mathit{\boldsymbol{i}} \ge {\rm{1}}} \end{array}$ (2)

 $S({C_\lambda }) = c \times \sqrt[{}]{{\left| {\prod\nolimits_{i = 1}^2 {\left[ {\theta _{mj}^1({\eta _{mj}}) - \theta _{mj}^0({\eta _{mj}})} \right]} } \right|}}$ (3)
 $c = \frac{{{\rm{min}}\left[ {\theta _{mj}^1({\eta _{mj}}) - \theta _{mj}^0({\eta _{mj}})} \right]}}{{\left| {{\rm{min}}\left[ {\theta _{mj}^1({\eta _{mj}}) - \theta _{mj}^0({\eta _{mj}})} \right]} \right|}}$ (4)

2.4 权衡关系量化

 ${\rm{RMSE}} = \sqrt {\frac{1}{n}\sum\limits_{i = 1}^n {{{\left( {{\rm{E}}{{\rm{S}}_i} - \overline {{\rm{ES}}} } \right)}^2}} }$ (5)

3 结果与分析 3.1 东北旱作区旱作农业生态系统各功能时空变化特征

 图 2 2005—2015年东北旱作区农业生态系统生产功能(A)、生活功能(B)和生态功能(C)协同度时空变化 Figure 2 The temporal and spatial variations of synergy degree of agro-ecosystem from 2005 to 2015 in the dry farming areas of Northeast China (A: agricultural production function; B: agricultural living function; C: agricultural ecological function)

2005—2010年, 东北旱作区农业生活功能协同度低值区(Ⅰ级、Ⅱ级)集中连片分布于各省旱作区境内; 2010—2015年低值区向各省旱作区边缘地带转移, 高值区零散分布于部分县市。从时间变化来看, 2005—2010年, Ⅰ级、Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级协同度县市个数所占比例分别为9.41%、69.41%、21.18%;而2010—2015年Ⅰ级、Ⅱ级县市个数所占比例分别下降为8.24%、56.47%, Ⅲ级县市个数则上升为32.94%。区域农业生活功能协同度平均上升0.1, 增幅为58.82%, 整体向有序方向发展, 但黑龙江和吉林旱作区的局部县市农业生活功能协同度有所下降(图 2B)。

2005—2010年, 东北旱作区农业生态功能协同度高值区(Ⅲ级、Ⅳ级)在黑龙江、吉林旱作区集中连片分布, 低值区(Ⅰ级、Ⅱ级)主要分布于辽宁旱作区; 而2010—2015年生态功能协同度高值区集中于辽宁旱作区, 低值区则集中连片分布于黑龙江、吉林旱作区, 且协同度下降明显。从时间尺度分析, 2005—2010年, Ⅲ级、Ⅳ级协同度县市个数占比分别为58.82%、22.35%, 而2010—2015年分别下降为24.71%、4.7%, Ⅱ级县市所占比例则上升为61.18%, 农业生态功能协同度平均下降0.45, 整体向无序方向发展(图 2C)。

3.2 东北旱作区旱作农业生态系统协同分析

 图 3 2005—2015年东北旱作区农业生态系统综合协同度时空变化 Figure 3 The temporal and spatial variations of agro-ecosystem overall synergy degree from 2005 to 2015 in the dry farming areas of Northeast China

 图 4 东北各省旱作区农业生产、生态、生活功能协同度变化 Figure 4 The variations of synergy degree of three agricultural functions in the dry farming areas of Northeast provinces in China
3.3 旱作农业生态系统各功能权衡关系差异

 图 5 2005—2010年和2010—2015年东北旱作区农业生态系统各功能权衡关系变化 Figure 5 The trade-offs among three agricultural functions in the dry farming areas of Northeast China during 2005-2010 and 2010-2015
4 讨论与结论 4.1 讨论

2005—2015年, 东北旱作区农业生态系统综合协同度明显下降, 农业生产功能、生活功能和生态功能之间的不协调发展是导致其下降的主要原因。相关研究表明, 由于区域人均耕地面积减少、旱地改水田趋势加快以及化肥产出率下降等原因导致各项指标对农业生产功能的贡献率下降, 农业生产功能协同度降低[38]。虽然研究区粮食产量持续增加, 但受到人口增长、粮食价格波动等因素影响, 导致人均粮食占有量和农民人均纯收入增速放缓, 区域农业生活功能协同度虽有所增加, 但增幅较小[39]。研究区是我国重要粮食产区, 近年来在粮食持续增产的同时, 化肥、农药以及农膜的长期过量投入使农业生态环境负荷加重, 区域农业生态功能协同度下降, 导致农业生态环境面临较大压力。

4.2 结论

2005—2015年, 东北旱作区农业生态系统综合协同度平均下降0.12, 由Ⅲ级(较协同)下降为Ⅱ级(低度协同)水平。就各功能而言, 农业生产功能和生态功能分别下降0.03、0.45, 而生活功能协同度有较小增幅。2005—2010年, 农业生产功能协同度高值区主要分布于吉林和黑龙江旱作区中部县市, 低值区集中于黑龙江旱作区北部边缘及辽宁旱作区大部; 而2010—2015年农业生产功能高值区集中于辽宁省大部和黑龙江部分县市, 低值区则集中连片分布于吉林和黑龙江旱作区大部。从各省份来看, 吉林、黑龙江旱作区农业生态系统综合协同度下降, 朝无序方向发展, 而辽宁旱作区与之相反, 综合协同度上升, 朝有序方向发展。

2005—2015年, 东北旱作区农业生态系统各功能之间存在时空权衡关系。2005—2010年, 农业生产-生态、农业生活-生态功能之间的权衡关系整体均表现为收益于农业生态功能; 2010—2015年则整体呈现为收益于农业生产功能和农业生活功能, 而2005—2015年农业生产-生活功能二者之间的权衡关系变化较小。区域农业生产投入、种植结构调整以及农业人口转移等因素的变化推动了各功能之间权衡关系及收益方向的转变, 进而导致东北旱作区农业生态系统整体协同度出现波动。