引用本文:段美春,刘云慧,张 鑫,曾为刚,宇振荣. 以病虫害控制为中心的农业生态景观建设[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2012, 20(7): 825-831
DUAN Mei-Chun,LIU Yun-Hui,ZHANG Xin,ZENG Wei-Gang,YU Zhen-Rong. Agricultural disease and insect-pest control viaagro-ecological landscape construction[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2012, 20(7): 825-831
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1011.2012.00825
【打印本页】   【HTML】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器   关闭   
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 1686次   下载 1260 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
分享到: 微信 更多
以病虫害控制为中心的农业生态景观建设
段美春, 刘云慧, 张 鑫, 曾为刚, 宇振荣
中国农业大学资源与环境学院 北京 100193
摘要:  化学农药控制农田病虫害面临诸如农药残留、环境污染等问题, 而生物农药及生物防治存在着药效缓慢、成本高、防治对象单一等不足, 目前缺乏综合、效果明显、环境友好的农田病虫害控制手段。景观生态学研究显示, 致病菌、害虫及其天敌种群受到大尺度上景观格局的影响, 从而为病虫害控制提供了一条新的途径: 通过合理规划农业生态景观格局, 在景观尺度上合理安排种植结构和农事活动, 从而控制农田病虫害。本文从景观、田块、耕种管理措施3个层次上论述通过农业生态景观建设控制农业病虫害。景观上: 应提高半自然生境的面积比例; 丰富半自然生境类型和农田生境作物类型; 同时注意景观结构异质性的营建; 关注景观连接度, 使其保持在既有利于天敌昆虫的迁移、又能较好地阻止病虫害传播的水平上; 同时还应提升半自然生境斑块的质量。田块上: 通过保留原有的农田边界和新建农田植被缓冲带来控制相邻农田中的病虫害; 农田缓冲带的建设要与原有的半自然生境及农田边界构成一个整体, 建设过程中主要关注植被的搭配, 后期要特别注意杂草、割草、施肥、喷药等管理措施。耕种管理措施上: 通过景观层次上合理安排间套混作控制农田中的病虫害, 同时注重与农林间作, 稻田养鱼养鸭等技术体系和休耕、深耕、保护性耕作、有机肥施用等技术措施相结合。最后以哈尼梯田为例, 说明整合以上3个层次可构建综合控制病虫害的农业生态景观。
关键词:  病虫害控制 农业生态景观 景观异质性 农田缓冲带 耕种管理措施
中图分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(30800150)和国家科技支撑计划课题(2012BAJ24B05)资助
Agricultural disease and insect-pest control viaagro-ecological landscape construction
DUAN Mei-Chun, LIU Yun-Hui, ZHANG Xin, ZENG Wei-Gang, YU Zhen-Rong
College of Resources and Environment, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Abstract:  Chemical pesticides for controlling plant diseases and insect-pests in farmlands cause a series of serious problems including residue effects, environmental pollution, etc. Bio-pesticides and bio-controls are, on the other hand, slowly effective, high cost, and, always with certain targets. Integrated, high-efficient and environment-friendly disease and insect-pest control measures are in increasing demand today. Landscape ecological research has shown that the populations of pathogenic bacteria, pests and their natural enemies are largely affected by landscape patterns. This has provided a new insight into plant disease and insect-pest control. Rational planning of agro-landscape patterns at landscape scale and reasonable arrangement of planting structures and farming activities constituted a beneficial control of agricultural diseases and insect-pests in farmlands. This paper discussed control measures of agricultural diseases and insect-pests from the point of view of agro-landscape at the landscape, field and farm management levels. At the landscape level, control measures of plant diseases and insect-pests included increasing area portions of semi-natural habitats, enriching semi-natural and farm crop habitats and enhancing heterogeneity of landscape structures. It was also necessary to keep the degree of connections among landscapes so as to maintain a balanced migration of natural enemies and prevention of the spread of plant diseases and insect-pests. Low-quality semi-natural habitat plaques also needed to be improved. At the field level, original farmland boundaries needed to be preserved. Also building of new farmland buffers were needed to control plant diseases and insect-pests in adjacent farmlands. Constructed farmland buffers needed to be integrated into original semi-natural habitat and farmland boundaries. Furthermore, it was important that farmland buffers were rationally configured for plant species, weeding, fertilization, spray pesticide and other agro-management practices. At the farm management level, reasonable intercropping patterns at the landscape level were needed for effective disease and insect-pests control. Tree-crop intercrops, rice-fish/duck farms, fallows, deep ploughs, conservation tillages, organic fertilizations, etc., constituted other important control measures of agricultural diseases and insect-pests. The combination of the above in constructing integrated agro-ecological landscapes for comprehensive control of plant diseases and insect-pests was demonstrated in the Hani terraced fields.
Keyword:  Disease and insect-pest control, Agro-landscape, Landscape heterogeneity, Farmland buffer, Farm management
您是第 4838661 位访问者  冀ICP备05003362号-2
版权所有 ©《中国生态农业学报(中英文)》编辑部
地址:河北省石家庄市裕华区槐中路286号 050022 电话:0311-85818007 E-mail:editor@sjziam.ac.cn
技术支持:北京勤云科技发展有限公司