引用本文:张翰林,吕卫光,郑宪清,李双喜,王金庆,张娟琴,何七勇,袁大伟,顾晓君.不同秸秆还田年限对稻麦轮作系统温室气体排放的影响[J].中国生态农业学报,2015,23(3):302-308
ZHANG Hanlin,LYU Weiguang,ZHENG Xianqing,LI Shuangxi,WANG Jinqing,ZHANG Juanqin,HE Qiyong,YUAN Dawei,GU Xiaojun.Effects of years of straw return to soil on greenhouse gas emission in rice/wheat rotation systems[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2015,23(3):302-308
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.141079
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不同秸秆还田年限对稻麦轮作系统温室气体排放的影响
张翰林1, 吕卫光1, 郑宪清1, 李双喜1, 王金庆1, 张娟琴1, 何七勇1, 袁大伟1, 顾晓君2
1.1. 上海市农业科学院生态环境保护研究所/上海市设施园艺技术重点实验室/上海市农业环境保护监测站 上海 201403 2. 农业部上海农业环境与耕地保育科学观测实验站 上海 201403;2.2. 农业部上海农业环境与耕地保育科学观测实验站 上海 201403 3. 上海低碳农业工程技术研究中心 上海 201403
摘要:  为揭示稻麦轮作系统不同秸秆还田年限下温室气体排放特征及减排调控机制, 本研究采用大田小区试验, 考察了稻麦轮作不同秸秆还田年限[空白对照(CK)、常规处理秸秆不还田(NT)、1年秸秆还田(SR1)和5年秸秆还田(SR5)]对CH4、CO2和N2O 3种温室气体排放规律的影响, 同时测定了土壤固碳量, 估算了秸秆焚烧产生的温室气体排放量, 综合计算了4种处理对全球变暖的贡献。试验结果表明, SR1和SR5均显著提升CH4和CO2的排放通量, 分别高出NT、CK处理73.52%、309.49%和13.29%、13.06%; 同时显著降低N2O排放通量, 较NT降低29.68%和42.55%; 但SR1和SR5之间温室气体排放通量差异不显著; 与NT相比, SR1和SR5可以显著提高土壤固碳量517.9%和709.03%, SR5土壤固碳量高出SR1达30.93%; NT秸秆焚烧产生的全球气温变暖贡献为9 698.49 kg(CO2-eqv)·hm-2, 比CK高126.98%。综合分析温室气体排放、土壤固碳以及秸秆焚烧3个因素, SR1全球升温贡献最低, 显著低于NT 4.72%。短期全量秸秆还田有助于降低总体温室气体排放, 长期进行秸秆还田后降低幅度会逐步减小。
关键词:  温室气体 土壤固碳 秸秆还田年限 稻麦轮作 秸秆焚烧 全球升温贡献
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基金项目:上海市科学技术委员会基础研究领域项目(13JC1404800)、2014年度上海市农业科学院青年人才成长计划项目[沪农青字(2014)第1 23号]资助
Effects of years of straw return to soil on greenhouse gas emission in rice/wheat rotation systems
ZHANG Hanlin1, LYU Weiguang1, ZHENG Xianqing1, LI Shuangxi1, WANG Jinqing1, ZHANG Juanqin1, HE Qiyong1, YUAN Dawei1, GU Xiaojun2
1.1. Eco-environmental Protection Institute of Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Science / Shanghai Key Laboratory of Horticultural Technology / Environmental Protection Monitoring Station of Shanghai City, Shanghai 201403, China 2. Agricultural Environment and Farmland Conservation Experiment Station of Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai 201403, China;2.2. Agricultural Environment and Farmland Conservation Experiment Station of Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai 201403, China 3. Shanghai Low Carbon Agriculture Engineering Technology Research Center, Shanghai 201403, China
Abstract:  Crop straw is the largest renewable resource on earth but it is often burned after crop harvest, resulting in loss of nutrients and environmental pollution. With current advocate for ecological agriculture, straw return to soil is the most important mode of reutilization of agricultural by-products. This mode is vigorously applied and promoted in rice/wheat rotation system. Research has shown that straw return to soil as a key mode of ecological agriculture affects many aspects of agricultural systems, including soil physical and chemical properties, carbon sequestration in soils, greenhouse gas emissions, etc. Despite this, less research has focused on the effects of different years of straw return to soil on the contributions of agricultural systems to global warming. In this study, field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different years of straw return to soil (with CK as no straw return without fertilizer; and NT, SR1 and SR5 as 0, 1 and 5 years of straw return with normal fertilization) on greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2 and N2O) emissions and soil carbon sequestration in rice/wheat rotation system. Combined with the effects of straw burning on greenhouse gas emissions, the contributions of the four treatments to global warming were comprehensively estimated. Greenhouse gases (CH4, CO2 and N2O) emission fluxes from the rice/wheat rotation systems were analyzed using the static chamber gas chromatography method. Greenhouse gases emission fluxes from straw burning were estimated based on published lists of greenhouse gases by IPCC 2006. The results of the study showed that straw return to soil (SR1 and SR5) significantly increased CH4 and CO2 emission fluxes, which were higher than those of NT by 73.52% and 13.29%, than those of CK by 309.49% and 13.06%, respectively. Straw return to soil also decreased N2O emission flux, which was lower than those of NT (29.68%) and CK (42.55%). However, no significant difference was noted between greenhouse gases emissions under SR1 and SR5. Compared with NT, SR1 and SR5 increased one year soil carbon sequestrations respectively by 517.90% and 709.03%. Also soil carbon sequestration under SR5 was higher than that under SR1 by 30.93%. The contribution of straw burning to soil carbon sequestration under NT was 9 698.49 kg(CO2-eqv)·hm-2, which was higher than that of CK by 126.98%. The combined effects of the three factors (greenhouse gas emission, carbon sequestration and straw burning), the contribution to global warming of SR1 was lowest, significantly lower than that of NT by 4.72%. While full short-term straw return to soil was useful in reducing overall greenhouse gas emission, the range of reduction would decrease with time of full application of long-term straw return to soil.
Keyword:  Greenhouse gas  Soil carbon sequestration  Years of straw return to soil  Rice/wheat rotation  Straw burning  Contribution to global warming
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