引用本文:赵雪雁,万文玉,王伟军.近50年气候变化对青藏高原牧草生产 潜力及物候期的影响[J].中国生态农业学报,2016,24(4):532-543
ZHAO Xueyan,WAN Wenyu,WANG Weijun.Impact of climate change on potential productivity and phenological phase of forage in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the past 50 years[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2016,24(4):532-543
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近50年气候变化对青藏高原牧草生产 潜力及物候期的影响
赵雪雁, 万文玉, 王伟军
西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院 兰州 730070
摘要:  基于青藏高原及周边107个气象站点1965—2013年逐月气温、降水及日照时数等气象数据, 分析了1965年以来青藏高原区的气候变化趋势, 并采用MODIS数据、Thornthwaite Memorial模型及GIS技术分析了近50 a青藏高原牧草气候生产潜力及其时空变化特征; 利用连续22 a的青藏高原牧草生育期观测数据, 探讨了牧草生育期的时空变化特征及气象因子与牧草主要发育期的关系。结果表明: 1)近50 a青藏高原平均气温呈上升趋势, 升温幅度达0.53 ℃(10a)1, 降水量总体呈现上升趋势, 但增加幅度较小, 其倾向率为7.81 mm(10a)1; 而日照时数呈下降趋势, 其下降幅度为16.94 h(10a)1。2)1965—2013年青藏高原牧草气候生产潜力总体呈增加趋势, 在空间上, 由西北向东南依次增加, 青海省北部及南部部分地区气候生产潜力上升幅度较大, 而西藏东部上升幅度较小, 且南北部地区差异较大。3)牧草返青期、抽穗期及开花期均呈提前趋势, 而黄枯期呈现推迟趋势, 从而延长了牧草物候期; 由东南向西北牧草返青期逐渐推迟, 而黄枯期主要出现在一年中的第257~289 d, 其空间整体差异不如返青期明显。4)温度和降水均与牧草物候期呈显著正相关, 而日照时数与其呈显著负相关, 且温度是影响牧草物候期变化的主要因子。利用青藏高原牧草生产潜力及物候期与气候因子的响应规律, 可为提高该区牧草的实际产量和保护青藏高原草地生态系统提供借鉴和依据。
关键词:  青藏高原 气候变化 草地植被 气候生产潜力 物候期
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41361106)、教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划(NCET-11-0910)和甘肃省高校基本科研业务费项目资助
Impact of climate change on potential productivity and phenological phase of forage in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the past 50 years
ZHAO Xueyan, WAN Wenyu, WANG Weijun
College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
Abstract:  The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is considered to be ideal region for studying the response of natural ecosystems to climate change because its’ mountainous environments is one of the most fragile of the global ecosystems. The impacts of the changes in temperature and precipitation on the phenology varied among different grasslands. After experiencing a distinct warming in recent decades, some studies noted that remarkable variations in vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were potentially due to climate change. In order to determine the impacts of climate change on vegetation phenology and potential productivity, this paper used meteorological data during 1965–2013 in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (e.g., monthly temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration) of 107 meteorological stations, and extracted vegetation phenological indices using MODIS-derived normalized difference vegetation index data during 2000–2013, and used the Thornthwaite Memorial model and GIS techniques to analyze the spatial and temporal trends of potential climate-driven forage productivity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Then by analyzing 22 years of continuous observation data of growth stages of forage in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the relationship between meteorological factors and major growth stages of forage was determined. Also the driving factors of the dynamics of potential climate productivity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were determined. Furthermore, the relationship between temperature or precipitation and sunshine duration during forage growth period was determined based on regression analysis. The results showed that the potential climate productivity of forage in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was consistently varied with geographical region and spatial temperature distribution. Average temperature in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau rose during the nearly 50-year period, increasing by 0.53 ℃(10a)1. Precipitation generally increased at the rate of 7.81 mm(10a)1, while sunshine duration decreased by 16.94 h(10a)1. Potential climate productivity of forage in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau presented an increasing trend from 1965 to 2013, and spatial changes of the productivity, in turn, increased from northwest to southeast. Then potential climate productivity of forage in the north and south in the plateau significantly increased and there was less variation in the east of the plateau. Furthermore, the regreening, heading and blossoming of forages advanced, while yellowing and withering delayed year after year, which extended the forages phenological phases. Regreening stage of forage delayed from southeast to northwest, although withering stage showed no obvious change. Under drier and warmer conditions, phenological periods of grassland vegetation in the region became closely related to climate change. Then precipitation and sunshine duration were negatively correlated with phenological period of the grassland vegetation. Temperature was the dominant constraint on phenological phases of grassland vegetation in the study area. The study formed a relevant reference and basis for the protection of grassland ecosystems and enhancing potential climate productivity in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
Keyword:  Qinghai-Tibet Plateau  Climate change  Grassland vegetation  Potential climate productivity  Phenological period
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