引用本文:柴强,胡发龙,陈桂平.禾豆间作氮素高效利用机理及农艺调控途径研究进展[J].中国生态农业学报,2017,25(1):19-26
CHAI Qiang,HU Falong,CHEN Guiping.Research advance in the mechanism and agronomic regulation of high-efficient use of nitrogen in cereal-legume intercropping[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2017,25(1):19-26
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160603
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禾豆间作氮素高效利用机理及农艺调控途径研究进展
柴强, 胡发龙, 陈桂平
甘肃省干旱生境作物学重点实验室/甘肃农业大学农学院 兰州 730070
摘要:  为保障粮食安全,农业生产中化肥使用极为普遍,但过量使用,往往引起地下水污染、温室效应加剧、生物多样性降低等多种环境和生态问题。禾豆间作系统由于不同作物生物学特性和氮素利用存在差异,进行合理调控可充分发挥生物固氮优点,从而减少化肥投入,提高生产效益,是一种稳产、高产、高效可持续的种植体系。该系统中“氮转移”、“氮阻遏”消减和氮素时空分异是目前研究的热点,也是促进豆科作物固氮、减少化肥投入的有效途径,可实现禾、豆两种作物对氮素的高效利用。特别是该系统中作物品种、施氮制度、空间布局以及种植密度等农艺措施是对种间关系进行调控的必要手段,合理优化可有效促进禾/豆间作竞争与互补协同作用,增强氮素协调利用,从而挖掘两种作物对氮素高效利用的生物学潜力。为此,本文基于前人研究成果和农业可持续发展观点,重点综述了国内外有关禾豆间作氮素高效利用主要机理及相关农艺调控途径的研究现状,旨在为构建简易、高产、高效、氮肥节约型禾豆间作模式提供有力的科学依据和理论支撑。
关键词:  禾豆间作  氮转移  氮阻遏  种间关系  氮素高效利用
中图分类号:S344.2
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划(2012BAD14B10)、国家自然科学基金项目(31360323)和公益性行业(农业)专项课题(201503125)资助
Research advance in the mechanism and agronomic regulation of high-efficient use of nitrogen in cereal-legume intercropping
CHAI Qiang, HU Falong, CHEN Guiping
Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science/Faculty of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China
Abstract:  Chemical fertilizer use is very common in agriculture for sustainable food production and food security. However, the excessive use of N fertilizer has often caused severe environmental and ecological problems. The existing issues regarding the over use of N fertilizers include groundwater pollution, greenhouse effect, biodiversity loss, etc. Cereal-legume intercropping is a yield-stable, high-efficient and sustainable cropping system compared to any monoculture. A favorable model of cereal-legume intercropping allows two distinct crops with different biological characteristics and nitrogen demand to grow together in the same field. With consideration of reasonable regulation of the differences between two crops, improvements can be achieved by taking advantage of biological N2 fixation to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and increase crop productivity. It is presently a hot research area to address issues on N transfer, alleviation of inhibitory effect on nodulation and N2 fixation, and temporal-special distribution of N in cereal-legume intercropping systems. Addressing these topics will improve N2 fixation in legume crops and reduce the heavy dependence of crop production on chemical fertilizers.Furthermore, clarifying the underlying mechanisms of the three issues will greatly enhance high-efficient use of N by the two distinct crops. Crop variety, N fertilizer management, special layout and planting density are the vital regulation measures of the interrelations between cereals and legumes. The optimization of the above measures will improve synergistic effect of competition and recovery, and enhance coordination of nitrogen use in cereal-legume intercropping systems, and thereby promote biological potential on high-efficient use of N. This paper summarized research advances in the major mechanisms of high-efficient use of N and the relevant regulatory factors in cereal-legume intercropping systems. The summary of the paper was based on the results of previous studies and the approaches of sustainable agricultural development. The objective was to provide scientific and theoretical basis for establishing a simple, high-yield, efficient and N-saving model for cereal-legume intercropping systems.
Keyword:  Cereal-legume intercropping  N transfer  Inhibitory effect of N application on N2 fixation  Interspecific relationship  High-efficient use of N
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