引用本文:佀国涵,彭成林,徐祥玉,徐大兵,袁家富,李金华.稻虾共作模式对涝渍稻田土壤理化性状的影响[J].中国生态农业学报,2017,25(1):61-68
SI Guohan,PENG Chenglin,XU Xiangyu,XU Dabing,YUAN Jiafu,LI Jinhua.Effect of integrated rice-crayfish farming system on soil physico-chemical properties in waterlogged paddy soils[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2017,25(1):61-68
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160661
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稻虾共作模式对涝渍稻田土壤理化性状的影响
佀国涵1, 彭成林1, 徐祥玉1, 徐大兵1, 袁家富1, 李金华2
1.湖北省农业科学院植保土肥研究所 武汉 430064;2.潜江市农技推广中心 潜江 433199
摘要:  稻虾共作模式是一种以涝渍水田为基础,以种稻为中心,稻草还田养虾为特点的复合生态系统。本文通过10年(2005- 2015年)定位试验,以中稻单作模式为对照,研究了稻虾共作模式对0~10 cm、10~20 cm、20~30 cm和30~40 cm土层土壤理化性状以及水稻产量的影响;采用投入产出法,评估了稻虾共作模式的经济效益。结果表明,长期稻虾共作模式显著降低了15~30 cm土层的土壤紧实度,其在15 cm、20 cm、25 cm和30 cm处的土壤紧实度较中稻单作模式分别降低了20.9%、29.9%、24.8%和14.7%。长期稻虾共作模式提高了0~40 cm土层中>0.25 mm水稳性团聚体数量、平均质量直径和几何平均直径,但降低了0~20 cm土层的团聚体分形维数。相对于中稻单作模式,长期稻虾共作模式显著提高了0~40 cm土层有机碳、全钾和碱解氮含量,0~30 cm土层全氮含量,0~10 cm土层全磷和速效磷含量以及20~40 cm土层速效钾含量。稻虾共作模式显著降低了0~10 cm土层还原性物质总量,但提高了20~30 cm土层土壤还原性物质总量。稻虾共作模式的水稻产量较中稻单作模式显著提高,增幅为9.5%,其总产值、利润和产投比较中稻单作模式分别增加了46 818.0元·hm-2、40 188.0元·hm-2和100.0%。可见稻虾共作模式改善了土壤结构,增加了土壤养分,提高了水稻产量以及经济效益,但增加了10 cm以下土层潜育化的风险。
关键词:  稻虾共作模式  涝渍稻田  土壤结构  有机碳  土壤养分  经济效益
中图分类号:S181;S153
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAD07B10)、国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200807)、湖北省自然科学基金项目(2015CFC894)和湖北省农业科技创新中心项目(2011-620-003-03-063)资助
Effect of integrated rice-crayfish farming system on soil physico-chemical properties in waterlogged paddy soils
SI Guohan1, PENG Chenglin1, XU Xiangyu1, XU Dabing1, YUAN Jiafu1, LI Jinhua2
1.Institute of Plant Protection and Soil Fertilizers, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430064, China;2.Qianjiang Agro-Technology Extension Center, Qianjiang 433199, China
Abstract:  Integrated rice-crayfish system is a complex ecological system based on waterlogged paddy field cultivation characterized with crayfish fed by rice straw. Using rice monoculture system as the control, a 10-year (2005-2015) field experiment was conducted to study the effects of integrated rice-crayfish system on rice yield and soil physico-chemical properties at soil depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm. The economic benefit of integrated rice-crayfish system was evaluated using the input-output method. The results indicated that long-term integrated rice-crayfish system significantly reduced soil compaction at the 15-30 cm layer. The soil compaction in 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm and 30 cm soil was lower in integrated rice-crayfish system than in rice monoculture system by 20.9%, 29.9%, 24.8% and 14.7%, respectively. Long-term integrated rice-crayfish system increased soil water-stable aggregates (>0.25 mm) content, aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) in the 0-40 cm layer, but decreased aggregate fractal dimension (D) in the 0-20 cm layer. Compared with rice monoculture system, long-term integrated rice-crayfish system significantly increased the contents of soil organic carbon, total K and available N in the 0-40 cm layer, then total N in the 0-30 cm layer, total P and available P in the 0-10 cm layer and available K in the 20-40 cm layer. The total amount of reducing matter in the 0-10 cm soil layer of the long-term integrated rice-crayfish system was lower than that in the monoculture rice system, but it was higher in the 20-30 cm soil layer. Rice yield in integrated rice-crayfish system significantly increased by 9.5% than that in the monoculture rice system. The output, profit and ratio of output to input in integrated rice-crayfish system were higher than those in the monoculture rice system by 46 818.0 ¥·hm-2, 40 188.0 ¥·hm-2 and 100.0%, respectively. It was therefore clear that integrated rice-crayfish system improved soil structure, enhanced soil nutrient and increased rice yield and economic benefit. However, it also increased the risk of soil gleying in the 10 cm depth.
Keyword:  Integrated rice-crayfish system  Waterlogged paddy field  Soil structure  Organic carbon  Soil nutrient  Economic benefit
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