引用本文:张秀,张黎明,龙军,陈翰阅,范协裕,邢世和,徐福祥.亚热带耕地土壤酸化程度差异及影响因素[J].中国生态农业学报,2017,25(3):441-450
ZHANG Xiu,ZHANG Liming,LONG Jun,CHEN Hanyue,FAN Xieyu,XING Shihe,XU Fuxiang.Soil acidification degree difference and impact factors of subtropical cropland[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2017,25(3):441-450
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160723
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亚热带耕地土壤酸化程度差异及影响因素
张秀1,2, 张黎明1,2, 龙军1,2, 陈翰阅1,2, 范协裕1,2, 邢世和1,2, 徐福祥3
1.福建农林大学资源与环境学院 福州 350002;2.土壤环境健康与调控福建省重点实验室 福州 350002;3.中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所 烟台 264000
摘要:  准确揭示区域耕地土壤酸化程度及其原因对于耕地质量提升和农业可持续发展具有重要意义。本研究利用地处亚热带的福建省1982年36 777个和2008年236 445个耕地表层土壤调查样点属性建立的1:25万耕地土壤数据库,借助GIS技术与灰色斜率关联分析模型探讨了26年间全省耕地土壤酸化程度及其原因,为省域耕地土壤酸性调控提供科学依据。结果表明:1982-2008年间福建省67.60%的耕地土壤发生不同程度酸化,其中强度、中度和弱度酸化面积分别占全省耕地总面积的0.83%、18.26%和48.52%。就行政区域差异而言,强度酸化耕地主要分布在龙岩市,占全省强度酸化耕地总面积的86.88%,其次为泉州市,占比为8.39%;中度酸化耕地主要分布在南平市、龙岩市和泉州市,分别占全省中度酸化耕地总面积的29.88%、18.10%和16.94%,弱度酸化耕地则遍布全省各县市区。从土壤类型差异来看,潜育水稻土、渗育水稻土和酸性紫色土亚类的酸化面积比例较大,分别占相应亚类总面积的82.87%、72.37%和69.20%;但渗育和潴育水稻土亚类的酸化程度较为严重,强度、中度和弱度酸化的渗育和潴育水稻土面积分别占全省耕地相应酸化程度总面积的98.94%、84.51%和87.36%。从土地利用类型差异分析,水田和水浇地的酸化面积比例较高,分别占相应利用类型总面积的70.35%和60.78%。灰色斜率关联分析模型分析表明,1982-2008年间酸雨、高温多雨气候及化肥大量施用是引起福建省耕地土壤酸化的主要外因,故严控工业含硫等酸性废气排放进而控制酸雨和合理调整施肥结构是减缓全省耕地土壤酸化的必要途径。
关键词:  福建  耕地  土壤酸化  土壤类型  土地利用类型  灰色斜率关联分析
中图分类号:S15
基金项目:福建省高校杰出青年科研人才计划基金(JA13093)资助
Soil acidification degree difference and impact factors of subtropical cropland
ZHANG Xiu1,2, ZHANG Liming1,2, LONG Jun1,2, CHEN Hanyue1,2, FAN Xieyu1,2, XING Shihe1,2, XU Fuxiang3
1.College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China;2.Key Lab of Soil Ecosystem Health and Regulation of Fujian Province, Fuzhou 350002, China;3.Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264000, China
Abstract:  Soil pH is an important indicator of cropland soil fertility and quality. Decline in soil pH is a vital problem in soils of intensive agricultural systems in China,which heavily obstructed crop growth and improvement of ecological environments. Thus accurate knowledge on the degree of acidification and its causes of regional cropland soils is crucial for the enhancement of the quality of cropland soils and sustainable development of agriculture. In this study,data on topsoil attributes collected from 36 777 sampling sites in the second soil survey in 1982,236 445 sampling sites of soil fertility investigation for fertilization in 2008,average annual temperature and precipitation for 1980-2008 in Fujian Province were used to establish a 1:250 000 map of relevant cropland soil attributes database in ArcGIS software. This database,containing a total of 34 593 patches,was used to study the extent of acidification,and combined with the Grey slope correlation analysis model to explore the causes of cropland soils acidification in the province. The aim of the study was to lay the scientific basis necessary for understanding soil acidification regulation. The results showed that the area of acidification during the studied period accounted for 67.60% of the total area of croplands in the province. Also the areas with strong,moderate and low acidifications accounted for 0.83%,18.26% and 48.52% of total croplands in the province,respectively. Analysis on prefectural city scale showed that strongly acidified croplands were mainly distributed across Longyan City and Quanzhou City,accounting respectively for 86.88% and 8.39% of total strongly acidified croplands in the province. Moderately acidified farmlands were mainly distributed across Nanping City,Longyan City and Quanzhou City,accounting respectively for 29.88%,18.10% and 16.94% of total moderately acidified cropland in the province. The weakly acidified croplands were widely distributed across Fujian Province. On the whole,strongly and moderately acidified farmlands were mainly distributed across the north,southwest and southeast littoral regions of Fujian Province. In terms of soil type,gley paddy soils,percogenic paddy soils and acid purplish soils had significantly acidized in 1980 to 2008,with acidified areas accounting respectively for 82.87%,72.37% and 69.20% of total gley paddy soils,percogenic paddy soils and acid purplish soils in the province. However,the acidification degrees of percogenic and hydromorphic paddy soils were relatively severe,with the total area of strong,moderate and low acidifications accounting respectively for 98.94%,84.51% and 87.36% of total acidified cropland area in the province. In terms of land use type,paddy and irrigated fields were significantly acidified,accounting for a high proportion of the study area. Acidified areas accounted respectively for 70.35% and 60.78% of total paddy and irrigated fields in the study area. Grey slope correlation analysis suggested that increasing severity of acid rain,high temperature,high precipitation and high fertilizer input were the main factors contributing to the acidification of croplands in Fujian Province. An effective control approach of cropland acidification in Fujian Province was by strict control the emissions of industrial acidic exhaust gases containing sulfur. It was also necessary to optimize fertilizer management programs by increasing organic fertilizers application and reducing chemical nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers application.
Keyword:  Fujian Province  Farmland  Soil acidification  Soil subgroup  Land use type  Grey slope correlation analysis
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