引用本文:任志远,孙艺杰,吴林筱. 1990-2012年榆林市土地生态风险综合评价[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(5): 656-664
REN Zhiyuan,SUN Yijie,WU Linxiao. Comprehensive evaluation of ecological risk of land during 1990-2012 in Yulin City[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(5): 656-664
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160843
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1990-2012年榆林市土地生态风险综合评价
任志远, 孙艺杰, 吴林筱
陕西师范大学旅游与环境学院/陕西师范大学地理学国家级实验教学示范中心 西安 710119
摘要:  土地利用/覆盖变化对区域生态安全和维持生态系统服务功能起着决定性作用,土地生态风险评价是衡量土地资源可持续利用的重要指标。本文以生态脆弱的陕西省榆林市为研究对象,依据榆林市土地系统的基本特征,选取表征干旱风险的降水距平百分率指数、表征人类活动类型及强度的土地利用结构风险及表征土壤侵蚀的土壤水力侵蚀、土壤风力侵蚀4个风险指标,构建土地生态风险综合评价模型,对影响榆林市1990-2010年土地生态风险的因素进行定性和定量的评价与分析。研究结果表明:(1)1990-2012年榆林市的降水距平百分率指数均值呈先减后增的趋势,其低值区主要分布在偏东部地区;(2)21年间土地利用结构生态风险整体上呈先增后减的趋势,区域差异较大且变化明显;(3)土壤水力侵蚀较剧烈的区域主要分布在东部及南部地区,21年间均值呈先增后减的趋势;(4)土壤风力侵蚀较严重的区域主要分布在北部地区,随着时间变化其均值一直呈递减趋势;(5)土地生态风险21年间总体呈减小趋势,各区县生态风险差异显著。通过对榆林市土地生态风险综合评价,可为优化土地资源配置、保护生态环境提供理论建议,实现区域经济生态和谐发展。
关键词:  土地  生态风险  生态脆弱  能源开发  榆林市
中图分类号:X826
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41371523)和教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地项目(14JJD840004)资助
Comprehensive evaluation of ecological risk of land during 1990-2012 in Yulin City
REN Zhiyuan, SUN Yijie, WU Linxiao
School of Tourism and Environmental Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University/National Demonstration Center for Experimental Geography Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China
Abstract:  Land use/cover change is a determinant factor in the analysis of ecosystem services for regional ecological security and maintenance. Ecological risks of land serves as a vital index in measuring sustainable utilization of land resources. The research area used in this study was Yulin City, a city in northern Shaanxi Province located in the Loess Plateau and Maowusu Desert border where the climate is arid and the land use structure is irrational. This region is one of the areas with the most severe water and soil erosion on the Loess Plateau, with ecologically-fragile environment, damage susceptibility and recovery difficulty. Thus based on the natural geographical conditions, development history of the city, basic land system characteristics and removed single factor evaluation uncertainty, this study established an evaluation index system of various sources risk in Yulin City. Percent precipitation anomaly index was used as indicator for the risk of drought, the risk of land use structure as the indicator for the effect of human activity on the ecological system, and wind/water erosion as the indicators of soil erosion. Then the four evaluation indicators were used to construct a comprehensive evaluation model for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation and analysis of the factors affecting ecological risk of land in Yulin City for the period 1990-2010. The main conclusions of the study were as follows: (1) the distribution of precipitation was uneven, with percent precipitation anomaly index initially decreasing and later increasing in the period from 1990 to 2012 for Yulin City. The area with lower value of the index mainly covered the eastern part of the city. And the index increased from the south to the north. (2) There were large and significant changes in the differences in regional risks of land use structure. The land use structure risk first increased and then decreased in the course of the investigated 21-year period. (3) More severe soil water erosion occurred mainly in the eastern and the southern regions of the study area (driven mainly by topographic factors) with an initial mean increase and then a decrease over the 1990-2012 period. (4) There was more severe wind erosion mainly in the northern region, with Yuyang District having the largest erosion and Suide and Mizhi Counties the smallest erosion, and with a decreasing trend in mean erosion for the investigated period. (5) The trend in ecological risk of land was decreased, and significant differences in ecological risk of land were observed among counties. The area of Yulin City with severe ecological risk in 1990 was mainly in the northwest, area with high ecological risk in 2001 was mainly in the central region and west of Yulin City (e.g., Dingbian County), area with moderate ecological risk was mainly in the southeast. The ecological security status in the study area was improved overall, although the situation remained grim. This research put forth a theoretical proposal for optimizing the allocation of land resources and protecting the ecological environment in order to realize a harmonious development of regional economy and ecology.
Keyword:  Land  Ecological risk  Fragile ecology  Energy development  Yulin City
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