引用本文:谢立勇,许婧,郭李萍,徐玉秀,孙雪,赵洪亮,郭飞,赵迅. 水肥管理对稻田CH4排放及其全球增温潜势影响的评估[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(7): 958-967
XIE Liyong,XU Jing,GUO Liping,XU Yuxiu,SUN Xue,ZHAO Hongliang,GUO Fei,ZHAO Xun. Impact of water/fertilizer management on methane emission in paddy fields and on global warming potential[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(7): 958-967
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160921
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水肥管理对稻田CH4排放及其全球增温潜势影响的评估
谢立勇1, 许婧1, 郭李萍2, 徐玉秀1, 孙雪1, 赵洪亮1, 郭飞1, 赵迅1
1.沈阳农业大学农学院 沈阳 110161;2.中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所 北京 100081
摘要:  甲烷(CH4)是主要温室气体之一,对全球增温的作用仅次于二氧化碳(CO2)。稻田是CH4的重要排放源,减少稻田CH4排放对减缓气候变暖具有直接效应。为此,掌握稻田CH4排放的规律和特征对控制和减少稻田CH4排放尤为重要。为了解稻田温室气体排放的主要影响因子及影响程度,估算稻田温室气体全球增温潜势,寻求农田减排措施,我们通过收集已发表的文献建立了稻田CH4排放的数据库,采用析因分析与回归分析方法对稻田CH4日排放量和全球增温潜势特征和可能的影响因子进行了分析。结果表明,稻田CH4日排放量和增温潜势均随土壤有机质背景含量的升高而增加,不同类型稻田CH4日排放量大小依次为:双季稻晚稻 > 双季稻早稻 > 单季稻 > 稻麦轮作晚稻;晚稻田CH4的增温潜势大于早稻田。不同肥料处理条件下,稻田CH4日排放量表现为:秸秆还田 > 配施有机肥 > 化学氮肥≈生物炭。控制灌溉水量可降低稻田CH4的综合增温潜势,表现为:持续淹水 > 晒田 > 干湿交替 > 控制灌溉。研究结果说明,稻田CH4的产生与排放过程受土壤有机质含量、肥料管理和水分管理以及轮作制度等多种因素的共同影响,应依据不同土壤条件和种植制度,适当调整肥水管理,以减少稻田温室气体排放,降低其增温潜势。
关键词:  稻田  温室气体  甲烷排放  增温潜势  土壤有机质  水肥管理  栽培制度
中图分类号:S162
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划“十二五”项目(2013BAD11B03)资助
Impact of water/fertilizer management on methane emission in paddy fields and on global warming potential
XIE Liyong1, XU Jing1, GUO Liping2, XU Yuxiu1, SUN Xue1, ZHAO Hongliang1, GUO Fei1, ZHAO Xun1
1.College of Agronomy, Shenyang Agriculture University, Shenyang 110161, China;2.Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:  Methane (CH4) is a key greenhouse gas,second only to CO2 in term of contribution to global warming.Paddy field,as an important source of CH4 emission,has significant implications for global warming and climate change.In order to understand the main factors of CH4 emission in paddy fields and its impact on global warming,this study calculated potential global warming and sought measures to mitigate CH4 emission in paddy fields.To do so,we collected data on CH4 emission in paddy fields in China using literatures published before 2015(including journals and doctoral and master dissertations) and documented in CNKI net,ScienceDirect and SpringLink.Then daily CH4 emission,global warming potential (GWP) and associated factors influencing CH4 emission in paddy fields in China were analyzed using regression and factorial analyses.The results showed that daily emission of CH4 in paddy field and GWP due to CH4 emission increased with increasing soil organic matter (SOM).The order of daily CH4 emission from paddy field was:late paddy field of double cropping rice > early paddy field of double cropping rice > single cropping paddy field > late paddy field of rice-wheat rotation.GWP due to CH4 emission in late paddy field was more than that in early paddy field for double cropping rice.The order of daily CH4 emission from paddy fields with different fertilizer managements was:ST (straw turnover)> NO (chemical nitrogen fertilizer with organic manure)> NF (chemical nitrogen fertilizer)≈ BI (biochar).Water management significantly affected CH4 emission from paddy fields with the order of continuous flooding (CF)> field drying (FDF)> flooding-drying alternation (FD)> control irrigation (CI).Proper water management also significantly reduced GWP due to CH4 emission.The order of GWP due to CH4 emission in early paddy fields,late paddy fields and single cropping rice paddy fields was also as follows:CF > FDF > FD > CI.The results suggested that CH4 emission was influenced by many factors,including soil SOM content,water and fertilizer management,and basic soil conditions.However,agricultural management activities (e.g.,water and fertilizer management,fertilizer amount,fertilizer type) played a major role in CH4 emission in agricultural lands.This was influenced by soil nutrient conditions (soil SOM content and C:N ratio),climatic conditions (crop growth period,temperature and precipitation during growth period),management practices (fertilizer and water management),rotation system,and other factors.For a more accurate inventory of greenhouse gas emission and proposal of effective mitigation policies,it was critical to use appropriate prac-tices suitable to specific climatic,soil and cropping conditions,combined with rational nitrogen fertilizer application rate and water management.
Keyword:  Paddy field  Greenhouse gases  Methane (CH4) emission  Global warming potential  Soil organic matter  Water and fertilizer management  Cropping system
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