引用本文:黄国勤,赵其国. 江西省耕地轮作休耕现状、问题及对策[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(7): 1002-1007
HUANG Guoqin,ZHAO Qiguo. Current situation,issues and countermeasures of crop rotation and land fallow in Jiangxi Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(7): 1002-1007
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.161030
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江西省耕地轮作休耕现状、问题及对策
黄国勤1, 赵其国2
1.江西农业大学生态科学研究中心/江西省农学会耕作专业委员会 南昌 330045;2.中国科学院南京土壤研究所 南京 210008
摘要:  当前,全国各地正在按照党中央、国务院提出的“探索实行耕地轮作休耕制度试点”的战略部署要求,全力推进探索实行耕地轮作休耕制度试点。为促进江西省及其他条件相近的地区进一步开展相关研究及制定相关政策,以便给实施轮作休耕试点提供参考,通过运用文献研究方法及实地考察等形式,对江西省耕地轮作休耕现状进行了调查,分析存在的问题,并提出了相关对策。结果显示:当前江西耕地作物轮作具有面积比例低、模式多种多样、分布范围广、效益明显等特点,而目前休耕主要采取退耕和休闲两种方式。同时指出当前江西轮作存在面积小、模式差、管理不善、效益低等问题,而休耕多为被动式休耕,存在面积不合理、休耕农田不合适、模式单一、周期无规律、补偿不到位等问题。由以上存在的问题,提出了今后推进全省耕地轮作休耕制度试点的对策与措施:(1)加大宣传力度,提高农民意识;(2)制定科学规划,分类进行;(3)明确范围,有效管理;(4)改善条件,打造样板;(5)确定合理的补偿标准,保障农民利益;(6)增加投入,培养人才。
关键词:  农田  作物轮作  休耕  农业可持续发展  江西省
中图分类号:S-01
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFD0300208)、中国科学院学部咨询项目(2016ZWH002A-002)资助
Current situation,issues and countermeasures of crop rotation and land fallow in Jiangxi Province
HUANG Guoqin1, ZHAO Qiguo2
1.Center for Ecological Science Research, Jiangxi Agricultural University/Specialized Committee of Farming of Jiangxi Provincial Agricultural Society, Nanchang 330045, China;2.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
Abstract:  The“pilot projects of exploration of crop rotation and land fallow“proposed by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council is being implemented throughout the country in order to promote the planning,implementation and practice of crop rotation and land fallow for the improvement of environment.To conduct relevant research and develop relevant policies for Jiangxi Province and other regions under similar conditions,literature research methods,field visits and other forms of investigation were conducted in this study.The results showed that current crop rotation systems in Jiangxi Province were characterized by small cultivated areas,diverse patterns,wide distribution range and obvious benefits.The land fallow patterns in the province mainly included both conversion of degraded farm land into forest (grass) and leisure.The current crop rotation in the province was a small,poor management and low efficiency model.The land fallow was mostly passive,irrational,inappropriate,single model,abnormal cycle,not compensational,etc.Based on the above issues,this paper highlighted existing problems and put forward countermeasures for the promotion of land rotation and fallow systems in the region.This included:1) increasing propaganda and raising awareness of farmers,2) developing scientific planning and classification guide,3) developing clear and effective management strategies,4) improving existing conditions and creating sustainable models,5) determining reasonable compensation standards to protect interests of farmers,and 6) increasing investment and talent training.
Keyword:  Cultivated land  Crop rotation  Land fallow  Sustainable agricultural development  Jiangxi Province
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