引用本文:肖乾颖,黄有胜,胡廷旭,朱波.施肥方式对紫色土农田生态系统N2O和NO排放的影响[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(2):203-213
XIAO Qianying,HUANG Yousheng,HU Tingxu,ZHU Bo.Effects of fertilization regimes on N2O and NO emissions from agro-ecosystem of purplish soil[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(2):203-213
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171158
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施肥方式对紫色土农田生态系统N2O和NO排放的影响
肖乾颖1,2, 黄有胜3, 胡廷旭1,2, 朱波1
1.中国科学院山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室/中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所 成都 610041;2.中国科学院大学 北京 100049;3.四川省农业机械化干部学校 成都 610017
摘要:  依托紫色土施肥方式与养分循环长期试验平台(2002年-),采用静态箱-气相色谱法开展紫色土冬小麦-夏玉米轮作周期(2013年10月至2014年10月)农田生态系统N2O和NO排放的野外原位观测试验。长期施肥方式包括单施氮肥(N)、传统猪厩肥(OM)、常规氮磷钾肥(NPK)、猪厩肥配施氮磷钾肥(OMNPK)和秸秆还田配施氮磷钾肥(RSDNPK)等5种,氮肥用量相同[小麦季130 kg (N)·hm-2,玉米季150 kg (N)·hm-2],不施肥对照(CK)用于计算排放系数,对比不同施肥方式对紫色土典型农田生态系统土壤N2O和NO排放的影响,以期探寻紫色土农田生态系统N2O和NO协同减排的施肥方式。结果表明,所有施肥方式下紫色土N2O和NO排放速率波动幅度大,且均在施肥初期出现峰值;强降雨激发N2O排放,但对NO排放无明显影响。在整个小麦-玉米轮作周期,N、OM、NPK、OMNPK和RSDNPK处理的N2O年累积排放量分别为1.40 kg (N)·hm-2、4.60 kg (N)·hm-2、0.95 kg (N)·hm-2、2.16kg (N)·hm-2和1.41 kg (N)·hm-2,排放系数分别为0.41%、1.56%、0.25%、0.69%、0.42%;NO累积排放量分别为0.57 kg (N)·hm-2、0.40 kg (N)·hm-2、0.39 kg (N)·hm-2、0.46 kg (N)·hm-2和0.17 kg (N)·hm-2,排放系数分别为0.21%、0.15%、0.15%、0.17%、0.07%。施肥方式对紫色土N2O和NO累积排放量具有显著影响(P<0.05),与NPK处理比较,OM和OMNPK处理的N2O排放分别增加384%和127%,同时NO排放分别增加3%和18%;RSDNPK处理的NO排放减少56%。表明长期施用猪厩肥显著增加N2O和NO排放,而秸秆还田有效减少NO排放。研究表明,土壤温度和水分条件均显著影响小麦季N2O和NO排放(P<0.01),对玉米季N2O和NO排放没有显著影响(P>0.05),土壤无机氮含量则是在小麦-玉米轮作期N2O和NO排放的主要限制因子(P<0.01)。全量秸秆还田与化肥配合施用是紫色土农田生态系统N2O和NO协同减排的优化施肥方式。
关键词:  施肥方式  紫色土  N2O  NO  排放量  排放系数
中图分类号:S145.6
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41330744,41271321)和国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目(2012CB417101)资助
Effects of fertilization regimes on N2O and NO emissions from agro-ecosystem of purplish soil
XIAO Qianying1,2, HUANG Yousheng3, HU Tingxu1,2, ZHU Bo1
1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.Sichuan Provincial College for Engineer of Agri-mechanization, Chengdu 610017, China
Abstract:  Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions from agro-ecosystem of purplish soil were measured (starting from October 2003) in a long-term purplish soil fertilization platform (established in 2002) using closed static-chamber and gas chromatography systems. Single synthetic nitrogen fertilizer (N), pig manure (OM), regular synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (NPK), pig manure combined with synthetic NPK fertilizer (OMNPK) and returned crop residues combined with synthetic NPK fertilizer (RSDNPK) under the same total nitrogen rate were set, and N2O and NO emissions from croplands of purplish soil were monitored under these fertilization regimes. No fertilizer treatment (CK) was used as control in the calculations of the emission coefficients. The results showed large fluctuations in emission rates of N2O and NO, with N2O and NO peak emissions at the early stage of fertilization. N2O emission was enhanced by heavy rainfall, but rainfall had no significant effect on NO emission. For the whole wheat-maize rotation period, cumulative annual emissions of N2O in N, OM, NPK, OMNPK and RSDNPK treatments were 1.40, 4.60, 0.95, 2.16 and 1.41 kg(N)·hm-2; and with emission coefficients of 0.41%, 1.56%, 0.25%, 0.69% and 0.42%, respectively. The cumulative emissions of NO in N, OM, NPK, OMNPK and RSDNPK treatments were 0.57, 0.40, 0.39, 0.46 and 0.17 kg(N)·hm-2; and with emission coefficients of 0.21%, 0.15%, 0.15%, 0.17% and 0.07%, respectively. Fertilizer application regimes significantly (P< 0.05) influenced cumulative N2O and NO emissions. Compared with conventional NPK fertilizer, pig manure amendment stimulated N2O and NO emissions, with increases of 384% and 3% for OM and 127% and 18% for OMNPK, respectively. Returned crop residues combined with regular synthetic NPK fertilizer decreased NO emission by 56%. The application of pig manure (OM) increased N2O and NO emissions, whereas returned crop residues plus regular synthetic NPK fertilizer (RSDNPK) decreased NO emission. The research also showed that both soil temperature and moisture conditions significantly influenced N2O and NO emissions during wheat season (P< 0.01), but not during maize season (P> 0.05). However, soil inorganic nitrogen content was the main limiting factor for N2O and NO emissions during the whole wheat-maize rotation year (P< 0.01). Returned crop residues plus regular NPK fertilizer was recommended as the optimal fertilization regime for simultaneous mitigation of N2O and NO emissions.
Keyword:  Fertilization regime  Purplish soil  N2O  NO  Emission flux  Emission coefficient
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