引用本文:盖佳敏,樊军,王胜.黄土高原粗质地土壤剖面水分运动与浅层地下水补给可能性模拟[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(2):253-262
GE Jiamin,FAN Jun,WANG Sheng.Simulation of water flow and shallow groundwater recharge in coarse-textured soils on the Loess Plateau, China[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(2):253-262
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170495
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黄土高原粗质地土壤剖面水分运动与浅层地下水补给可能性模拟
盖佳敏1, 樊军1,2, 王胜2
1.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院 杨凌 712100;2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室 杨凌 712100
摘要:  黄土高原水土流失严重,生态环境脆弱,水资源短缺,地下水对保障区域社会经济发展和维持生态系统平衡具有重要意义,而该区的地下水转化和补给机制尚不明确。为探究黄土高原水蚀风蚀交错区土壤剖面深层水分运动及降水对浅层地下水补给的可能性,利用六道沟小流域分布的粗质地风沙土样地2013-2016年土壤剖面0~600 cm含水量数据,运用HYDRUS-1D模型对各土层水力参数进行反演和验证,并用于模拟样地土壤深剖面0~1 500 cm水分运移过程。结果显示,在平水年2014年(439 mm)和干旱年2015年(371 mm),0~600 cm土壤含水量生长季末与生长季初持平或略有亏缺;降水充沛年2013年(669 mm)和2016年(704 mm)土壤含水量生长季末远高于生长季初,降水入渗深度超过观测深度(600 cm)。深剖面水分运动模拟显示,2014年和2015年剖面含水量变化不明显,水分向深层运移微弱缓慢;但是,2013年和2016年降水可分别入渗运移至1 100 cm和1 200 cm深度,远超过样地上生长的旱柳根系区域,可能补给浅层地下水。在4年模拟期间,平均土壤蒸发为14.87 cm·a-1,平均植物蒸腾为33.70 cm·a-1,土壤水分主要以植物蒸腾形式损耗。在2个丰水年,得益于较充足的降水和粗质地风沙土壤的高入渗率,降水大量转化为土壤水快速向下入渗运移,模拟显示当年生长季末降水最深运移至1 200 cm,至年末已超过模拟深度(1 500 cm),水分继续运移可能补给浅层地下水。相关研究结果为黄土高原水蚀风蚀交错区地下水来源和补给机制提供理论依据。
关键词:  黄土高原  水蚀风蚀交错区  粗质地风沙土  HYDRUS-1D  土壤水分运移  深层入渗  浅层地下水
中图分类号:S152.7
基金项目:中国科学院西部青年学者A类项目(XAB2015A03)和国家自然科学基金项目(41571224,41571130082)资助
Simulation of water flow and shallow groundwater recharge in coarse-textured soils on the Loess Plateau, China
GE Jiamin1, FAN Jun1,2, WANG Sheng2
1.College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China;2.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, China
Abstract:  The Loess Plateau suffers serious soil and water loss, resulting in a fragile ecological condition with intense water resources deficit. Groundwater is crucial not only to guarantee regional social and economic development, but also to maintain ecosystem balance. However, the process of groundwater transformation and recharge on the Loess Plateau is still not entirely clear. The objective of this study was to investigate water movement in deep soil profile and test the possibilities of precipitation recharge of shallow groundwater in the water-wind erosion crisscross region on the Loess Plateau. Considering the limitations in current equipment and techniques for deep soil profile moisture observation, the HYDRUS-1D model was used to calculate solute soil hydraulic parameters and simulate deep profile (0-1 500 cm) soil water movement. The datasets used in the simulation included meteorological data and soil water content in the 0-600 cm soil layer in a willow field plot with aeolian sandy soil in the Liudaogou catchment in Shenmu City of Shaanxi Province, China for the period 2013-2016. The upper boundary condition was set as atmosphere boundary conditions with inputs of rainfall and potential transpiration (Tp) and potential evaporation (Ep) partitioned from crop evapotranspiration (ET0) by using measured leaf area index (LAI) in different growing periods. The lower boundary condition was set as free drainage. The optimized hydraulic parameters were derived from a repeated inverse solution process and used to simulate soil water movement in the 0-1 500 cm soil layer. Then the depth of soil water infiltration and the possibility of shallow groundwater recharge were analyzed. The results showed a slight soil water content deficit in the 0-600 cm soil layer at both the end and start of growing season in 2014 (439 mm, normal precipitation year) and 2015 (371 mm, dry year). However, there was surplus soil water content at the end of growing season, compared with the start of growing season in 2013 and 2016 (both were wet years with 669 mm and 704 mm precipitations), and rainfall infiltration exceeded observed 600 cm depth. From the simulation results, soil water content of deep soil profile did not significantly change in 2014 and 2015 with slight and slow water movement into the deeper soil layer, while rainfall infiltration depth reached 1 100 cm in 2013 and 1 200 cm in 2016. This exceeded rooting zone at the end of 2013 and 2016, which raised the possibilities of rainfall recharge of shallow groundwater in the study area. For the 4-year simulation period, average soil evaporation was 14.87 cm·a-1 and average plant transpiration was 33.70 cm·a-1, soil water contents were mainly consumed in the form of transpiration. Due to high infiltration rate of the coarse-textured soil in wet years, a large proportion of rainfall was transformed into shallow groundwater. Dry and wet years alternated on the Loess Plateau with intensive rainfall variations. Rainfall infiltration in wet years was one important way of shallow groundwater recharge in the region.
Keyword:  Loess Plateau  Water-wind erosion crisscross zone  Coarse-textured sandy soil  HYDRUS-1D model  Soil water movement  Deep percolation  Shallow groundwater
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