引用本文:詹秋丽,张黎明,周碧青,巫顺金,邢世和.福建耕地土壤磷素富集空间差异及其影响因素[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(2):274-283
ZHAN Qiuli,ZHANG Liming,ZHOU Biqing,WU Shunjin,XING Shihe.Spatial variation in phosphorus accumulation and the driving factors in cultivated lands in Fujian Province[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(2):274-283
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170767
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福建耕地土壤磷素富集空间差异及其影响因素
詹秋丽1,2, 张黎明1,2, 周碧青2, 巫顺金1,2, 邢世和2
1.福建农林大学资源与环境学院 福州 350002;2.土壤生态系统健康与调控福建省高校重点实验室 福州 350002
摘要:  利用1:250 000福建省耕地土壤类型空间数据库以及1982年1 676个和2008年200 322个耕地土壤调查样点数据资料,借助GIS技术与灰色关联分析模型,探讨了26年间研究区耕地耕层土壤有效磷富集程度空间差异及其影响因素。结果表明:26年来福建省耕地土壤有效磷呈明显富集趋势,全省92.81%的耕地有效磷处于不同程度富集状态,有效磷平均富集量和年均富集率分别高达24.38 mg·kg-1和10.01%,并呈较明显的空间差异。地处南亚热带的厦门市耕地有效磷富集程度最大,中亚热带的南平市富集程度最小;有效磷富集程度较高的土类为紫色土、潮土、水稻土和赤红壤,较小的土类为滨海盐土和石灰土;富集程度较大的亚类包括淹育水稻土、灰潮土和漂洗水稻土,较小的亚类包括棕色石灰土和滨海盐土。研究区耕地土壤磷素富集及其空间差异主要受年均磷肥施用量、pH、年均气温和土壤黏粒含量显著影响,灰色关联系数>0.722。根据研究区耕地土壤磷素富集程度及其空间差异制定磷肥优化管理措施是十分必要的。
关键词:  耕层土壤  有效磷  富集量  富集率  灰色关联分析  GIS
中图分类号:S15
基金项目:农业部耕地质量调查与评价项目(FJ2009304)资助
Spatial variation in phosphorus accumulation and the driving factors in cultivated lands in Fujian Province
ZHAN Qiuli1,2, ZHANG Liming1,2, ZHOU Biqing2, WU Shunjin1,2, XING Shihe2
1.College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China;2.University Key Laboratory of Soil Ecosystem Health and Regulation in Fujian Province, Fuzhou 350002, China
Abstract:  Phosphorus is one of the largest nutrient elements needed for plant growth. Under the intensive production conditions, most farmland soils in China have had phosphorus enrichment problem, mainly due to excessive application of phosphate fertilizers, strong fixation and inefficient use of phosphorus. The enrichment of phosphorus in cropland soils is one of the important causes of non-point pollution, which has also restricted sustainable agricultural development in China. In this study, the 1:250 000 spatial database on farmland soil types and the available phosphorus data on tillage layer soil samples of cultivated land (1 676 samples in 1982 and 200 322 samples in 2008) in Fujian Province were used to determine the spatial variation in the degree of phosphorus enrichment and the related driving factors in cultivated lands for the past 26 years. To do so, an integrated GIS with grey correlation analysis model was used. The aim of the study was to clarify the enrichment characteristics of soil available phosphorus, and its spatial variability and driving factors. The results showed that soil available phosphorus had been abundant in Fujian Province in the past 26 years. In addition, soil available phosphorus enrichment area reached 1 216 777 hm2, accounting for 92.81% of the total area of cultivated land in the province. The yearly average enrichment amount and rate of available phosphorus were 24.38 mg·kg-1 and 10.01%, respectively, which showed obvious spatial variations. While cropland soils in Xiamen (which is in southern subtropics) had the largest degree of available phosphorus enrichment, those in Nanping (which is in mid-subtropics) showed the lowest degree of available phosphorus enrichment in Fujian Province. The soil types with high available phosphorus enrichment included purplish soils, fluvo-aquic soils, paddy soils and latosolic red soils. Then the soils with less available phosphorus enrichment included coastal solonchaks and calcareous soils. Soil subtypes with larger degrees of available phosphorus enrichment included submerged paddy soils and bleached paddy soils, while those with lower levels of available phosphorus enrichment included brown calcareous soils and coastal solonchaks. In general, enrichment of available phosphorus in tillage layer of cultivated land soil had happened in large area with wide distribution range and significant spatial variation in Fujian Province. Grey correlation analysis showed that soil available phosphorus enrichment and its spatial variation were mainly affected by annual application rate of phosphate fertilizer, soil pH, mean temperature and soil clay content, which were with grey correlation coefficients higher than 0.722. However, the effect of soil sand content, precipitation and soil organic matter content on phosphorus enrichment in cultivated soils in study areas was relatively weaker. Their gray correlation coefficients were less than 0.720. Based on the degree of phosphorus enrichment and spatial variation, inorganic phosphate fertilizer application should be controlled strictly to deal with the phosphorus enrichment in cultivated soils in Fujian Province. At the same time, there was the need to optimize fertilization management by increasing organic fertilizer and reducing chemical fertilizer use.
Keyword:  Tillage soil  Available phosphorus  Enrichment amount  Enrichment rate  Grey correlation analysis  GIS
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