引用本文:何冬冬,杨恒山,张玉芹.扩行距、缩株距对春玉米冠层结构及产量的影响[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(3):397-408
HE Dongdong,YANG Hengshan,ZHANG Yuqin.Effects of line-spacing expansion and row-spacing shrinkage on canopy structure and yield of spring corn[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(3):397-408
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170623
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扩行距、缩株距对春玉米冠层结构及产量的影响
何冬冬1, 杨恒山1,2, 张玉芹1,2
1.内蒙古民族大学农学院 通辽 028000;2.内蒙古自治区饲用作物工程技术研究中心 通辽 028000
摘要:  为探究西辽河平原地区玉米扩行距、缩株距密植增产的生理生态机制,本研究以紧凑耐密玉米品种‘农华101’和半紧凑耐密玉米品种‘伟科702’为试验材料,在6×104株·hm-2(D1)、7.5×104株·hm-2(D2)、9×104株·hm-2(D3)密度下,设置扩行距、缩株距(KH,种植行距为100 cm,D1、D2和D3株距分别为16.67 cm、13.33 cm和11.11 cm)和当地农民常规种植(CK,种植行距为60 cm,D1、D2和D3株距分别为27.78 cm、22.22 cm和18.52 cm)2种种植模式,测定玉米吐丝期、乳熟期及完熟期玉米冠层叶面积指数、茎叶夹角、叶向值、透光率和产量及其构成因素,计算叶面积衰减率,研究扩行距、缩株距种植对春玉米产量及冠层结构特性的影响。结果表明,2品种KH种植下产量均显著大于CK,以D2密度下增产最明显;生育后期2品种KH种植下叶面积指数均大于CK,且乳熟期均达显著水平,D2密度下差异最大;2品种KH种植下均表现为上部叶片茎叶夹角较小,叶向值较大,而中部叶片和下部叶片茎叶夹角较大,叶向值较小。2品种KH种植下冠层透光率各层位均大于CK,其中顶层和穗位层均达显著水平;D1密度下,除2015年吐丝期‘伟科702’外均表现为顶层 > 穗位层 > 底层,D2、D3密度下,除2015年乳熟期D3密度下‘伟科702’外均表现为穗位层 > 顶层 > 底层,且以吐丝期D2密度下差异最为明显。综上所述,在较高密度种植下KH种植模式冠层结构更为合理,产量更高;且不同品种对KH种植模式的响应存在差异,其中‘农华101’各层位叶面积指数、茎叶夹角均小于‘伟科702’;各层位叶向值、冠层透光率均大于‘伟科702’;实测产量不同密度下均大于‘伟科702’,在7.5×104株·hm-2密度下产量最大,且‘农华101’较‘伟科702’增产更为明显。
关键词:  春玉米  扩行缩株  冠层结构  种植密度  产量
中图分类号:S513
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAD07B04)和内蒙古自治区硕士研究生科研创新项目(S20161013603)资助
Effects of line-spacing expansion and row-spacing shrinkage on canopy structure and yield of spring corn
HE Dongdong1, YANG Hengshan1,2, ZHANG Yuqin1,2
1.College of Agriculture, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao 028000, China;2.Center for Engineering Research on Forage Crops, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Tongliao 028000, China
Abstract:  To explore the physiological and ecological mechanisms of expanding line-spacing and shrinking row-spacing for increasing planting density and yield of spring corn in Xiliaohe Plain, a study was conducted with two corn varieties (the compact density-enduring variety ‘Nonghua 101’ and the semi-compact variety ‘Weike 702’) with planting densities of 6×104 plants·hm-2 (D1), 7.5×104 plants·hm-2 (D2) and 9×104 plants·hm-2 (D3). Then the conventional cultivation was used as the control treatment (CK) with row-spacing of 60 cm and plant-spacing of 27.78 cm (D1), 22.22 cm (D2) and 18.52 cm (D3). The expanding line-spacing and the shrinking row-spacing mode of cultivation (KH) had row-spacing of 100 cm and plant-spacing of 16.67 cm (D1), 13.33 cm (D2) and 11.11 cm (D3). The leaf area index, stem leaf angle, leaf orientation value, light transmittance of corn canopy at spinning stage, milk-ripe stage and full ripe stage and component factors of yield were determined, and also leaf area attenuation rate was calculated. Then the effects of expanding line-spacing and shrinking row-spacing on spring corn yield and canopy structure were determined. The results showed that the yields of KH treatments were significantly higher than that of CK treatments, where the yield increased most obviously under D2 density. Leaf area index of KH was higher than that of CK at late growth stage, and reached the highest value at milk-ripe stage with the most obvious variation under D2 density. Stem leaf angle of the upper leaves was smaller and with higher leaf orientation value than those of the lower ones. Stem leaf angle of middle and lower leaves were larger but with smaller leaf orientation values than those of the upper ones for 2 varieties under KH treatments. The light transmittances of canopies were higher than those of CK for both varieties under KH plantation mode. For D1 density, light transmittances of canopies of ‘Weike 702’ was in the order of top layer > spike layer > bottom layer, except in 2015. Under the D2 and D3 densities, light transmittances of canopies of ‘Weike 702’ was in the order of spike layer > top layer > bottom layer. The differences were most obvious under D2 density, except in 2015. In conclusion, canopy structure of KH planting pattern was more reasonable under higher planting density resulting in higher yield. The responses of different varieties to KH planting pattern were different. Leaf area index and stem leaf angle of ‘Nonghua 101’ were lower than those of ‘Weike 702’. Leaf aspect and canopy transmittance were also higher than those of ‘Weike 702’. Measured yields of ‘Nonghua 101’ under different densities were higher than those of ‘Weike 702’, and the highest yield was under the 7.5×104 plants·hm-2 planting density. Moreover, yield increase of ‘Nonghua 101’ was more obvious than that of ‘Weike 702’.
Keyword:  Spring corn  Line-spacing expansion and row-spacing shrinkage  Canopy structure  Planting density  Yield
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