引用本文:任永峰,梅丽,杨亚东,王志敏,赵沛义,高宇. 播期对藜麦农艺性状及产量的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(5): 643-656
REN Yongfeng,MEI Li,YANG Yadong,WANG Zhimin,ZHAO Peiyi,GAO Yu. Effects of sowing time on agronomic characteristics and yield of quinoa[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(5): 643-656
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170852
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播期对藜麦农艺性状及产量的影响
任永峰1,2, 梅丽3, 杨亚东1, 王志敏1, 赵沛义2, 高宇2
1.中国农业大学农学院 北京 100193;2.内蒙古农牧业科学院 呼和浩特 010031;3.北京市农技推广站 北京 100029
摘要:  藜麦具有较高的营养价值和广泛的适应性,近年来在内蒙古地区进行了引种种植,且种植面积逐年扩大。阴山北麓农牧交错区降雨少、蒸发量大、气候条件复杂,限制了藜麦的引种和生物学特性研究。为了深入探讨播种时间对藜麦生长发育的影响和藜麦适宜播期对地区气候条件的响应,于2014-2015年在阴山北麓区进行藜麦播期研究的基础上,于2016年设置10个播期处理S1-S10(早播:S1-S3,4月18-28日;常规:S4-S7,5月3-18日;晚播:S8-S10,5月23日-6月2日),调查不同播期下藜麦的生长、生理及产量。结果表明:1)该地区藜麦成熟所需生长季≥ 10℃积温为2 112~2 214℃,灌浆至成熟期积温≥ 344.2℃,藜麦大田生育期为114~150 d,S10处理(6月2日播种)没有满足该条件籽粒不能正常成熟;2)早播处理营养生长和生殖生长阶段均长于常规和晚播处理,分别多出7.8~14.4 d和9.0~17.8 d;3)处理S1-S5干物质积累量和叶面积指数较高,其中S2(4月23日)干物质量、叶面积指数均最高,与常规处理和晚播处理间均呈极显著差异;4)藜麦开花期存在光合午休现象,处理S2(4月23日)光合性能表现较强,光合速率、气孔导度和蒸腾速率均显著高于其他处理;5)各处理中单株籽粒重和产量均为S2(4月23日)处理最高,与常规和晚播处理间呈极显著差异,S2处理产量比产量最低的S9(5月28日)处理高2.87倍;6)通过对不同播期间降雨和积温气象因子分析发现,积温是影响阴山北麓藜麦生长发育和产量形成的重要气象因子,积温主要通过调节灌浆至成熟期小穗数和单穗重来影响产量。因此,早播有利于藜麦前期干物质量和叶面积形成,增加灌浆期-成熟期积温,促进籽粒养分积累,获得较高的生物产量和经济系数,具有较大的增产潜力。本试验表明阴山北麓区藜麦种植的适宜播期为4月中旬-5月上旬,应合理安排播期,重视积温对藜麦生长发育及产量形成的影响,尤其应重视生育后期低温的制约,是保证藜麦大面积推广的重要措施。
关键词:  藜麦  播期  生育期  干物质积累量  叶面积指数  产量
中图分类号:S519
基金项目:北京市农村工作委员会科技项目和内蒙古农牧业青年创新基金项目(2015QNJJN09)资助
Effects of sowing time on agronomic characteristics and yield of quinoa
REN Yongfeng1,2, MEI Li3, YANG Yadong1, WANG Zhimin1, ZHAO Peiyi2, GAO Yu2
1.College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;2.Inner Mongolia Academy of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Sciences, Hohhot 010031, China;3.Beijing Station for Popularizing Agricultural Technique, Beijing 100029, China
Abstract:  Quinoa is rich in nutrient and has a wide range of adaptability to climatic conditions. In recent years, it was successfully introduced and planted in Inner Mongolia, and the planting area was increasing year after year. There is a little rainfall in the farming-pastoral zone, however, evaporation in the region is excessive and climatic conditions highly complicated in the northern foothills of Yinshan Mountains, which limit research on the introduction and biological characteristics of quinoa. To explore the effects of sowing time on the growth and climatic conditions of quinoa in the northern foothills of Yinshan Mountains, a field experiment was conducted for the period 2014-2016. On the base of the research results of 2014-2015, in 2016, 10 different sowing times were selected (S1-S10) and the treatments divided into three sowing stages-early sowing (S1-S3 for 18-28 April), conventional sowing (S4-S7 for 3-18 May) and late sowing (S8-S10 for 23 May to 2 June). The growth, physiological and yield characteristics of quinoa were compared in all the 10 treatments. The results showed that:1) accumulated temperature of ≥ 10℃ for the whole life cycle of quinoa was 2 112-2 214℃, and growth period of quinoa was 114-150 days. 2) Early sowing treatments (S1-S3) had a longer period of vegetative and reproductive growth stages than the conventional (greater by 7.8-14.4 d) and late sowing (greater by 9.0-17.8 d) treatments. 3) Dry matter accumulation and leaf area index in treatments S1-S5 were high, with those in treatment S2 significantly higher than in conventional and late sowing treatments. 4) There was midday depression in quinoa photosynthesis at flowering stage and treatment. S2 had a significantly higher ability in terms of photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of treatment S2 were respectively 3.22-6.32 μmol(CO2)·m-2·s-1, 0.01-0.26 mol(H2O)·m-2·s-1 and 1.52-2.51 mmol(H2O)·m-2·s-1 higher than those of other treatments. 5) The highest spike grain weight (151.78 g per plant) and yield (4 097.97 kg·hm-2) were obtained in treatment S2, which were significantly higher than in the other treatments. Yield in treatment S2 was 2.87 times higher than in treatment S9. 6) In terms of quinoa growth and yield, accumulated temperature was a more critical factor than rainfall in the study area. Accumulated temperature affected yield mainly by regulating the number of spikes and single panicle weight from grain-filling stage to maturity stage of quinoa. Therefore, early sowing was beneficial for good biological morphologic development and it increased leaf area index. Accumulated temperature during grain-filling stage of quinoa was needed for high gain yield and economic coefficient. Our results suggested that the optimum sowing time of quinoa was from mid April to early May in the northern foothills of Yinshan Mountains. Sowing time was the most important factor in quinoa production. Accumulated temperature greatly affected growth and yield formation, which required a specific attention in order to avoid low temperature conditions at later growth stages of quinoa.
Keyword:  Quinoa  Sowing date  Growth period  Dry matter accumulation  Leaf area index  Yield
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