引用本文:闫翠萍,肖俊红,张晶,裴雪霞,董飞,张定一. 冬水前移对冬小麦生长及水分利用效率的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(5): 677-683
YAN Cuiping,XIAO Junhong,ZHANG Jing,PEI Xuexia,DONG Fei,ZHANG Dingyi. Effect of early winter watering on growth and water use efficiency of winter wheat[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(5): 677-683
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170710
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冬水前移对冬小麦生长及水分利用效率的影响
闫翠萍, 肖俊红, 张晶, 裴雪霞, 董飞, 张定一
山西省农业科学院小麦研究所 临汾 041000
摘要:  玉米秸秆粉碎还田+旋耕播种是晋西南小麦玉米一年两熟区小麦季的主要栽培模式,冬前灌水可塌实土壤、加快秸秆腐熟、确保小麦安全越冬。为探明合理运筹越冬水对培育冬前壮苗、增加小麦产量、提高籽粒水分利用率的影响,在山西省临汾市尧都区,设置4个冬小麦冬前灌水时间处理,分别为11月10日、11月25日、12月10日和12月25日,以冬小麦传统灌冬水时间(12月10日)为对照(CK),研究冬前灌水时间对冬小麦冬前群体茎数、根系、旗叶光合性能和土壤容重、酶活性影响。结果表明:与不灌冬水的处理相比,冬前灌水可塌实耕层土壤、调节土壤容重,利于小麦根系与土壤紧密接触,增强土壤酶活性、提高土壤肥力,促进冬小麦分蘖和次生根的发生。与传统冬前灌水时间(12月10日)相比,冬水前移对小麦生长有补偿作用,使冬前总茎数、单株茎数、次生根数、根干重增加,延长了旗叶的功能期,提高了叶绿素含量和光合速率,促进光合产物的合成转化,使成穗数增加1.66%~5.37%,千粒重增加0.55%~3.03%。玉米秸秆粉碎还田+旋耕播种条件下,小麦冬前灌水时间由传统昼消夜冻(12月10日)前移一个节气,即11月25日左右,主茎叶龄3叶到3叶1心的分蘖初期,可使小麦增产8.40%,水分利用效率提高5.76%,达22.05 kg·mm-1·hm-2
关键词:  玉米秸秆还田  旋耕  冬水前移  冬小麦  生长和产量  水分利用效率
中图分类号:S152.7;S152.1
基金项目:现代农业产业技术体系专项资金(CARS-03-2-7)和国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD22B03-03)资助
Effect of early winter watering on growth and water use efficiency of winter wheat
YAN Cuiping, XIAO Junhong, ZHANG Jing, PEI Xuexia, DONG Fei, ZHANG Dingyi
Wheat Research Institute, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Linfen 041000, China
Abstract:  Sowing winter wheat under smashed corn straw returning using rotary machine is the main mode of winter wheat cultivation in Southwest Shanxi Province. Winter watering can compact soil, accelerate corn straw rot and ensure safe wheat over-wintering. However, less study was reported on winter watering effect under condition of smashed corn straw incorporation using rotary machine. To explore optimal management of winter watering of winter wheat under this condition for development of strong seedling before winter, improve wheat growth, thereby increase grain water use efficiency and yield, an experiment was conducted in Yaodu District of Linfen City, Shanxi Province, China, to investigate winter watering time effects on winter wheat growth. Four watering time treatments were designed-November 10, November 25, December 10 (traditional watering time used as control) and December 25. No-winter watering was set for investigation of soil properties. Tiller and roots before wintering, photosynthetic characters, yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat under different treatments were investigated. The results showed that compared with treatment of non-winter watering, winter watering compacted soil and adjusted soil bulky density, which enhanced root closely touched to the soil and soil enzymes activities, thus enriched soil nutrition level and improved tillering and secondary root growth. The winter watering treatments compensated for winter wheat growth compared with control treatment. They increased stem and secondary root numbers before winter, and increased root dry weight per plant. Under early winter watering treatments, flag leave lifespan extended, chlorophyll content increased and photosynthesis enhanced. All these resulted in final head number increase by 1.66%-5.37%, 1000-kernel weight increased by 0.55%-3.03%. For sowing winter wheat under smashed corn straw returning using rotary machine, it was found that winter wheat yield under treatment of November 25 increased by 8.40% and water use efficiency increased by 5.76% (22.05 kg·mm-1·hm-2) at early tillering stage. In summary, under cultivation mode of smashed corn straw returning using rotary machine, proper early winter watering (in 25 November) was beneficial for formation of strong seedlings, high yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat.
Keyword:  Corn straw returning  Rotary tillage  Early winter watering  Winter wheat  Growth and yield  Water use efficiency
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