引用本文:马楠,闵庆文,袁正.农业文化遗产中传统知识的概念与保护——以普洱古茶园与茶文化系统为例[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(5):771-779
MA Nan,MIN Qingwen,YUAN Zheng.Concept and protection of traditional knowledges in agricultural heritage system: A case study of Pu'er Traditional Tea Agrosystem[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(5):771-779
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170781
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农业文化遗产中传统知识的概念与保护——以普洱古茶园与茶文化系统为例
马楠1,2, 闵庆文1,2, 袁正3
1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 北京 100101;2.中国科学院大学 北京 100049;3.北京科普发展中心 北京 100101
摘要:  传统知识不仅是地方社区内居民与自然环境长期适应中所积累的经验智慧,也是农业文化遗产的结构性存在,对遗产系统具有支持作用。因此,传统知识的传承保护是农业文化遗产保护工作的重要内容。本文通过归纳分析当前相关国际公约及研究中对于传统知识的定义及内涵,结合农业文化遗产特征将农业文化遗产中的传统知识定义为"农业文化遗产内,居民在长期生产生活过程中,围绕农业所积累的与生计维持、资源管理、生物多样性保护、精神信仰维持等多个方面密切相关的知识、创新及实践",可分为生计维持类传统知识、生物多样性保护类传统知识、传统技艺类传统知识、文化类传统知识及自然资源管理类传统知识5类。文章通过梳理农业文化遗产与传统知识的相关关系,以普洱古茶园与茶文化系统为例,结合遗产地实地情况,针对当前传统知识保护中所存在的实物载体遭到破坏、传承存在危机、受到旅游业冲击及保护措施相对低效等问题,提出加强保护意识、将传统知识保护纳入遗产系统保护规划、开展传统知识的调查编目、加强传承记录工作及充分利用现有制度对传统知识进行保护等措施,以期为农业文化遗产中传统知识的保护提供建议参考。
关键词:  传统知识  传统知识保护  农业文化遗产  普洱古茶园与茶文化系统
中图分类号:F323.21
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0506400)和农业部国际交流与合作项目"2017年中国的全球重要农业文化遗产保护技术支撑"资助
Concept and protection of traditional knowledges in agricultural heritage system: A case study of Pu'er Traditional Tea Agrosystem
MA Nan1,2, MIN Qingwen1,2, YUAN Zheng3
1.Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.Beijing Development Center for Popular Science, Beijing 100101, China
Abstract:  Agricultural heritage systems are strongly supported by traditional knowledge, which is the experience and wisdom that local residents have accumulated during their long-term adaptation to the natural environment. By acting as structural existence in agricultural heritage systems, traditional knowledge has existed in every aspect of the lives of local residents. Thus, it plays an important and necessary role in the conservation of agricultural heritage systems. In this study, we intended to define the concept of traditional knowledge from international laws and theories. According to specific characteristics of agricultural heritage, traditional knowledge is a pact of knowledge, innovation and practice that had been accumulated in long-term agricultural production and daily lives of residents in agricultural heritage systems. It is closely related to livelihood maintenance, resource management, biodiversity conservation, spiritual belief and many other aspects. It contains traditional knowledge of livelihood maintenance, biodiversity conservation, traditional skills, folklore as well as natural resource management. Furthermore, we defined each category of traditional knowledge separately, with examples, especially the Pu'er Traditional Tea Agrosystem. We analyzed the relationship between traditional knowledge and agricultural heritage system. There were 269 pieces of traditional knowledge in the system and the unique combinations of these pieces with natural, social and cultural conditions constituted a profound connotation of Pu'er Traditional Tea Agrosystem, making it a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) site. Besides, traditional knowledge had a positive impact on agricultural heritage systems in many aspects, including maintainability, enrichment of cultural values and protection of ecological environment. We also analyzed the existing problems with the protection of traditional knowledge. In Pu'er Traditional Tea Agrosystem, the physical carrier of traditional knowledge had been damaged and the transmission of traditional knowledge was now in a great crisis. Meanwhile, tourism and foreign cultures had a negative impact on traditional knowledge in agricultural heritage systems. The protection of it lacked effective measures. To conserve traditional knowledge in agricultural heritage systems, local residents were required to enhance awareness on the protection of traditional knowledge. Local government needed to integrate the protection of traditional knowledge into agricultural heritage systems conservation. There was also the need for increased investigation, collation and classification researches on traditional knowledge in agricultural heritage systems for effective protection that was in accordance with actual on-ground conditions. Inheritance of traditional knowledge needed strengthening so that the process of gradual loss of the knowledge systems could be slowed down. Existing institutions needed to be mobilized to protect traditional knowledge in agricultural heritage systems. Through these conservation actions, we could protect traditional knowledge and agricultural heritage systems while at the same time develop our own agricultural heritage systems for generations yet to come.
Keyword:  Traditional knowledge  Traditional knowledge protection  Agricultural heritage system  Pu'er Traditional Tea Agrosystem
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