引用本文:沙之敏,陈侠桦,赵峥,史超超,袁永坤,曹林奎.施肥方式对水稻‘花优14’干物质积累、产量及肥料利用率的影响[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(6):815-823
SHA Zhimin,CHEN Xiahua,ZHAO Zheng,SHI Chaochao,YUAN Yongkun,CAO Linkui.Effect of fertilizer management on dry matter accumulation, yield and fertilizer use efficiency of rice cultivar ‘Huayou-14’[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(6):815-823
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171029
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施肥方式对水稻‘花优14’干物质积累、产量及肥料利用率的影响
沙之敏1, 陈侠桦2, 赵峥3, 史超超1, 袁永坤4, 曹林奎1
1.上海交通大学农业与生物学院 上海 200240;2.宝山区农业推广服务中心 上海 201901;3.上海市农业科学院生态环境保护研究所 上海 201403;4.青浦区水务局 上海 201700
摘要:  基于长期测坑定位试验,连续两年研究了不同施肥方式对上海地区高产杂交水稻‘花优14’干物质积累规律、产量和肥料利用率的影响,以期为上海地区稻田科学的养分管理提供理论依据。试验设置4个处理:不施肥(CK)、单施化肥处理[CT,300 kg (N)·hm-2,60 kg (P2O5)·hm-2和60 kg (K2O)·hm-2]、有机无机配施处理(MT,与CT等氮磷钾,80%尿素+20%有机肥,磷钾不足部分以化肥补充)和单施有机肥处理(OT,与CT处理等氮量),分析了不同施肥处理下水稻干物质积累特征、产量结构、肥料利用率和经济效益的差异。结果表明,水稻生育期干物质量积累符合Logistic方程。MT年平均干物质最大积累速率达0.78 kg·hm-2·d-1,分别比OT和CK显著高0.17 kg·hm-2·d-1和0.19 kg·hm-2·d-1,与CT之间无显著差异。MT灌浆期同化物输入对籽粒贡献率为76.3%,与CT差异不显著,但比OT和CK处理分别显著提高9.4%和5.2%。水稻收获后,MT的年平均产量分别比CT、OT和CK处理高3.5%、15.6%和63.4%,氮素农学利用率分别较CT和OT提高9.7%和53.7%。有机肥结合化肥施用能够显著提高水稻干物质积累速率并促进花后同化产物向籽粒的输入,从而提高产量,在保证水稻经济效益的同时减少化肥投入,提高了肥料利用率,是较优的施肥方式。
关键词:  水稻  施肥方式  有机无机配施  干物质积累  肥料利用率
中图分类号:S131
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFD0801106)、国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(31601825)和国家自然科学基金重点项目(71333010)资助
Effect of fertilizer management on dry matter accumulation, yield and fertilizer use efficiency of rice cultivar ‘Huayou-14’
SHA Zhimin1, CHEN Xiahua2, ZHAO Zheng3, SHI Chaochao1, YUAN Yongkun4, CAO Linkui1
1.School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China;2.Baoshan District Agricultural Technology Extension Center, Shanghai 201901, China;3.Eco-environmental Protection Institute of Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Science, Shanghai 201403, China;4.Qingpu Water Authority, Shanghai 201700, China
Abstract:  Rice is one of the most important crops in China. The production of rice has dramatically increased over the last 50 years due to high input of chemical fertilizers. To control the unreasonable application of fertilizers (e.g., more chemical fertilizers, less organic manure or neglect of crop growth curve), we researched the effects of fertilizer application on dry matter accumulation and yield of rice in Shanghai. The objective of the study was to explore a scientific fertilization management for high yield and high fertilizer use efficiency cultivation of rice in Shanghai. To this end, two-year (2014-2015) field Lysimeter experiment was conducted at a typical paddy rice plot in a rural suburb of Shanghai, China. The ‘Huayou-14’ rice cultivar, which is widely cultivated in Shanghai, was used in the experiment. A total of four treatments were investigated, including no fertilizer treatment (CK) as the control, receiving neither chemical fertilizer nor manure; sole chemical fertilizer treatment (CT) of 300 kg(N)·hm-2 urea, 60 kg(P2O5)·hm-2 calcium superphosphate and 60 kg(K2O)·hm-2 potassium chloride applied according to the practice of local famers in the area; sole organic fertilizer treatment (OT) of poultry manure with total N at the same rate of 300 kg(N)·hm-2; and chemical-organic fertilizers mixture (MT) of 80% urea and 20% organic manure based on 300 kg(N)·hm-2. The dry matter accumulation characteristics, yield, fertilizer utilization rate and profitability were analyzed for different fertilization treatments. The effects of different fertilization treatments on dry matter accumulation of rice became significant from booting stage, which was higher in MT and CT than in OT and CK. Dry matter accumulation curves of ‘Huayou-14’ during growth stage were simulated by Logistic equation Y=Wm/(1+ae-bt), in which t is the days after transplanting, Y is the dry matter accumulation, Wm is the ultimate amount of dry matter. The maximum dry matter accumulation rate under MT increased respectively by 0.17 kg·hm-2·d-1 and 0.19 kg·hm-2·d-1 compared with OT and CK, but no significant difference compared with CT. Photosynthate accumulation at grain filling stage contributed mainly to rice yield. The contribution rate of photosynthate accumulation at grain filling stage to yield under MT was 76.3%, which was 9.4% and 5.2% higher than that under OT and CK, but had no significant difference from that under CT. At harvest, rice yield increased respectively by 15.6% and 63.4% under MT compared with OT and CK. However, no significant difference was observed between MT and CT. Agronomic efficiency of fertilizer significantly improved under MT, which was respectively 9.7% and 53.7% higher than CT and OT. It was possible to improve yield by increasing dry matter accumulation and extending growth period. The combined application of chemical fertilizer and manure was effective for dry matter accumulation as it provided sufficient nutrient supply for growth and dry matter accumulation even after flowering. Thus, it was a useful strategy for improving rice yield, reducing chemical fertilizer input and avoiding excessive waste of resources.
Keyword:  Paddy rice  Fertilizer management  Organic-inorganic fertilizer mixture  Dry matter accumulation  Fertilizer use efficiency
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