引用本文:罗俊,林兆里,阙友雄,张华,李诗燕,罗会,张才芳,陈建峰.不同耕整地方式对甘蔗耕层结构特性及产量的影响[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(6):824-836
LUO Jun,LIN Zhaoli,QUE Youxiong,ZHANG Hua,LI Shiyan,LUO Hui,ZHANG Caifang,CHEN Jianfeng.Effect of tillage mode on soil structure characteristics of plough layer and sug-arcane yield[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(6):824-836
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170918
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不同耕整地方式对甘蔗耕层结构特性及产量的影响
罗俊1, 林兆里1, 阙友雄1, 张华1, 李诗燕1, 罗会1, 张才芳1, 陈建峰2
1.福建农林大学农业部福建甘蔗生物学与遗传育种重点实验室 福州 350002;2.广西来宾市利拓农业服务有限公司来宾 546100
摘要:  为探讨不同耕整地方式对甘蔗地耕层土壤结构特性和产量的影响,以1.4 m和1.6 m两种种植行距为主处理,以深松35 cm+旋耕25 cm、深翻50 cm+旋耕25 cm、不深松(旋耕25 cm)3种耕整地作业方式为副处理,对甘蔗产量性状,土壤容重、紧实度、孔隙度、三相容积率、田间持水量、土壤贯入阻力和抗剪强度等土壤结构特性进行研究。结果表明:1.6 m行距处理甘蔗蔗茎产量显著低于1.4 m行距处理;1.6 m行距处理土壤紧实度显著小于1.4 m行距,容重显著高于1.4 m行距处理,1.6 m行距处理显著改善土壤贯入阻力和抗剪强度。与对照不深松(旋耕25 cm)相比,深松35 cm+旋耕25 cm及深翻50 cm+旋耕25 cm处理通过增加土壤耕作深度,显著改善了耕层土壤紧实度和耕层土壤容重,改善了耕层的整体疏松程度;深松作业通过提高耕层土壤总孔隙度,尤其增加了30~40 cm土层的毛管孔隙度,提高了深层土壤的保水能力,对甘蔗中后期株高伸长和茎径增粗产生显著的促进效应。深松35 cm+旋耕25 cm与深翻50 cm+旋耕25 cm均显著降低了耕层土壤贯入阻力,但对土壤抗剪强度的改善效果不显著;深松35 cm+旋耕25 cm的固相容积率最小,气相容积率最大,不深松(旋耕25 cm)耕作措施的固相容积率最大,气相容积率最小,3种耕作措施的液相容积率没有显著差异。深松35 cm+旋耕25 cm和深翻50 cm+旋耕25 cm均对土壤物理结构的改善具有积极作用,能显著提高甘蔗产量,在具有大马力拖拉机和高质量深松器的蔗区建议采用深松35 cm+旋耕25 cm的耕整地方式,在缺乏大马力拖拉机和高质量深松器的蔗区,可以采用铧式犁深翻50 cm+旋耕25 cm的耕整地方式来代替深松,以达到增厚耕层的目的。
关键词:  甘蔗  耕作措施  深松  行距  耕层  土壤结构  土壤物理性状  产量
中图分类号:S566.103.7
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项项目(201503119-04-01)、国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金(CARS-17)、福建农林大学科技创新专项基金(CXZX2017345)和国家甘蔗工程技术研究中心开放课题(2016-3-1,2017-2-1)资助
Effect of tillage mode on soil structure characteristics of plough layer and sug-arcane yield
LUO Jun1, LIN Zhaoli1, QUE Youxiong1, ZHANG Hua1, LI Shiyan1, LUO Hui1, ZHANG Caifang1, CHEN Jianfeng2
1.Key Lab of Sugarcane Biology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China;2.LiTuo Agricultural Services Co. Ltd, Laibin 546100, China
Abstract:  In order to establish the mechanical deep-ploughing technology of sugarcane for formation of good plough layer soil structure, the effect of tillage modes on soil plough layer structure and yield components of sugarcane were investigated. An experiment with 3 tillage measures under two planting rows of sugarcane were conducted. The two planting rows were 1.4 m and 1.6 m, respectively, while the subsidiary treatments included three tillage modes as follows-25 cm rotary tillage (as control), 35 cm sub-soiling plus 25 cm rotary tillage (sub-soiling), 50 cm deep plowing plus 25 rotary tillage (deep plowing). Sugarcane yield characteristics, together with soil bulk density, compactness, porosity, three-phase volumetric rate, field water holding capacity, penetration resistance and shear strength were investigated. The results demonstrated that stem yield of 1.6 m rows spacing was significantly lower than that of 1.4 m rows spacing. Also soil compactness of 1.6 m rows spacing was remarkably lower than that of 1.4 m rows spacing. Soil bulk density of 1.6 m rows spacing was strikingly higher than that of 1.4 m rows spacing. The results also indicated that 1.6 m rows spacing significantly improved penetration resistance and shear strength of soil. Also both the sub-soiling and deep plowing significantly increased sugarcane yield. Compared with the control, the sub-soiling and deep plowing treatments increased soil tillage layer depth, and also improved soil com-pactness and bulk density along with the overall porosity of plough layer. It also showed that sub-soiling dramatically increased total porosity of plough layer soil especially capillary porosity of soil. Field water holding capacity of deep soil also greatly improved by sub-soiling, which finally significantly enhanced plant height elongation and stem diameter thickening at the middle and late growth stages of sugarcane. Also both sub-soiling and deep plowing significantly decreased soil penetration resistance, but with insignificant effect on soil shear strength. Among the three tillage measures, there was no significant difference in volume rate of the liquid phase. However, sub-soiling had the smallest solid volume rate and the largest gas phase volume rate. Then the control resulted in the largest solid volume rate, but the smallest gas phase volume rate. In conclusion, sub-soiling and deep plowing had positive effects on soil physical structure and significantly increased yield of sugarcane. We also concluded that in sugarcane planting areas where large horsepower tractors and high quality loosen machines were used, 35 cm sub-soiling + 25 cm rotary tillage method was the most suitable tillage mode. However, in areas without large horsepower tractors and high quality sub-soiling devices, thick plough layer was maintained by the use of 50 cm deep plowing + 25 cm rotary tillage measure.
Keyword:  Sugarcane  Tillage measure  Sub-soiling  Rows spacing  Plough layer  Soil structure  Soil physical properties  Yield
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