引用本文:郭耀东,程曼,赵秀峰,郝保平,张延芳,曹卫东,郑普山.轮作绿肥对盐碱地土壤性质、后作青贮玉米产量及品质的影响[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(6):856-864
GUO Yaodong,CHENG Man,ZHAO Xiufeng,HAO Baoping,ZHANG Yanfang,CAO Weidong,ZHENG Pushan.Effects of green manure rotation on soil properties and yield and quality of silage maize in saline-alkali soils[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(6):856-864
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170952
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轮作绿肥对盐碱地土壤性质、后作青贮玉米产量及品质的影响
郭耀东1, 程曼2, 赵秀峰2, 郝保平2, 张延芳3, 曹卫东4, 郑普山2
1.山西省农业科学院玉米研究所 忻州 034000;2.山西省农业科学院农业环境与资源研究所 太原 030031;3.山西省农业科学院 太原 030031;4.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 北京 100081
摘要:  为明确种植和翻压绿肥改良和培肥盐碱地的效果,采用田间试验研究了种植和翻压毛叶苕子(Vicia villosa Roth.)、田菁(Sesbania cannabina Poir.)、草木樨(Melilotus officinalis L.)、紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)、箭筈豌豆(Vicia sativa L.)和黑麦草(Lolium perenne L.)6种绿肥对中度苏打盐碱地土壤理化性质、返还土壤的N、P2O5和K2O数量、后作青贮玉米(Zea mays L.)鲜草产量及蛋白质含量的影响。结果表明:与对照(不种植绿肥)相比,绿肥生长后期可显著提高土壤含水量1.0%~6.2%,使pH降低0.03~0.43,EC降低0.12~1.50 mS·cm-1;翻压绿肥可返还土壤N 15.6~195.4 kg·hm-2、P2O55.3~58.8 kg·hm-2和K2O 34.5~127.9 kg·hm-2,使土壤有机质、全氮、碱解氮、速效磷和速效钾分别提高0.42~1.86 g·kg-1、0.05~0.34 g·kg-1、0.5~32.3 mg·kg-1、0.42~4.65 mg·kg-1和3.8~26.1 mg·kg-1;与对照相比,青贮玉米的鲜草产量和蛋白质含量分别增加1 294~19 391 kg·hm-2和0.4~23.9 mg·g-1。总体而言,种植和翻压豆科绿肥在保蓄土壤水分,降低土壤pH和EC,提升土壤有机质含量和N、P2O5、K2O养分数量(特别是N素数量),提高青贮玉米鲜草产量与蛋白质等方面的效果均显著优于禾本科绿肥,其中以适应性强、生长快、生物量大的毛叶苕子处理的改良、培肥土壤,生产优质牧草的效果最好;其次是草木樨处理。种植和翻压豆科绿肥可有效改良中度苏打盐碱地,显著提高土壤肥力,提供无机养分替代部分化肥,提高优质牧草的生产,是适合大同盆地中度苏打盐碱地经济、有效和环保的改良模式,对稳定耕地面积、保证粮食安全具有重要意义。
关键词:  绿肥  盐碱地  土壤理化性状  青贮玉米  产量  品质
中图分类号:S142
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201103005)、国家绿肥产业技术体系(CARS-22)和山西省农业科学院推广项目(2015CGZH016)资助
Effects of green manure rotation on soil properties and yield and quality of silage maize in saline-alkali soils
GUO Yaodong1, CHENG Man2, ZHAO Xiufeng2, HAO Baoping2, ZHANG Yanfang3, CAO Weidong4, ZHENG Pushan2
1.Maize Research Institute, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinzhou 034000, China;2.Institute of Agricultural Environment and Resource, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan 030031, China;3.Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan 030031, China;4.Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:  Saline-alkali lands are widespread in Datong Basin, Shanxi Province. For years, little manure has been used to improve the saline-alkali soils in the region. The barren soil and harsh ecological environment have resulted in a very low production efficiency of agriculture. Green manure has not only been an important part of modern agriculture, but also been traditionally used in agriculture in China for improvement of soil quality. In order to explore the effects of plantation and incorporation of green manure in saline-alkali soil management, a field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of green manure crops in middle level saline-alkali lands on soil physic-chemical properties, maize silage yield and protein content. Soil water content, pH, EC, nitrogen, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were analyzed. Six types of green manure (Vicia villosa Roth., Sesbania cannabina Poir., Melilotus officinalis L., Medicago sativa L., Vicia sativa L. and Lolium perenne L.) were used in the study. Results showed that compared with the control (no green manure plantation), soil water content increased by 1.0%-6.2% during the middle and later growth periods of green manure, whereas soil pH and EC decreased by 0.03-0.43 mS·cm-1 and 0.12-1.50 mS·cm-1, respectively. Incorporation of green manure led to the return of 15.6-195.4 kg(N)·hm-2, 5.3-58.8 kg(P2O5)·hm-2 and 34.5-127.9 kg(K2O)·hm-2 to soil. With overturning of green manure, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium contents in the 0-20 cm soil layer increased by 0.42-1.86 g·kg-1, 0.05-0.34 g·kg-1, 0.5-32.3 mg·kg-1, 0.42-4.65 mg·kg-1 and 3.8-26.1 mg·kg-1, respectively. The yield and protein content of silage maize increased by 1 294-19 391 kg·hm-2 and 0.4-23.9 mg·g-1, respectively. Compared with L. perenne, V. villosa and M. suaveolens increased soil water content respectively by 1.2%-5.2% and 1.0%-5.0% during the middle and later growth periods, whereas decreased soil pH by 0.06-1.30 and 0.06-1.27 and EC by 0.08-0.51 mS·cm-1 and 0.08-0.47 mS·cm-1, respectively. Overturning of V. villosa and M. suaveolens respectively returned 179.8 kg(N)·hm-2 and 150.3 kg(N)·hm-2, 40.9 kg(P2O5)·hm-2 and 36.2 kg(P2O5)·hm-2, and 65.0 kg(K2O)·hm-2 and 93.4 kg(K2O)·hm-2 to the soil. The yield of silage maize increased respectively by 18 097 kg·hm-2 and 14 903 kg·hm-2 with overturning of V. villosa and M. suaveolens, and protein content increased respectively by 23.5 mg·g-1 and 19.2 mg·g-1, compared with overturning of L. perenne. In general, the cultivation of legume green manures was better than graminaceous green manure (L. perenne) in decreasing soil pH, keeping soil water content, returning N, P2O5 and K2O to soil and enhancing soil organic matter. Among the green manures used, V. villosa was the most effective, followed by M. suaveolens. In short, the approach of "planting and incorporating green manure and then rotation" was applicable in similar saline-alkali soil conditions. The planting and incorporation of green manure economically, effectively and environmentally improved medium saline lands, enhanced soil fertility and returned nutrient to soil.
Keyword:  Green manure  Saline-alkali soil  Soil physical and chemical property  Silage maize  Yield  Quality
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