引用本文:李少博,徐英德,高晓丹,张昀,张广才,李嵩,许晨阳,田锐,汪景宽.离子界面行为在土壤有机无机复合体形成中的作用[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(11):1682-1691
LI Shaobo,XU Yingde,GAO Xiaodan,ZHANG Yun,ZHANG Guangcai,LI Song,XU Chenyang,TIAN Rui,WANG Jingkuan.The role of ionic interfacial behaviors in formation of soil organic-inorganic complexes[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(11):1682-1691
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180376
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离子界面行为在土壤有机无机复合体形成中的作用
李少博1, 徐英德1, 高晓丹1, 张昀1, 张广才1, 李嵩1, 许晨阳2, 田锐3, 汪景宽1
1.沈阳农业大学土地与环境学院/土肥资源高效利用国家工程实验室/农业部东北耕地保育重点实验室 沈阳 110866;2.西北农林科技大学资源与环境学院 杨凌 712100;3.西南大学资源与环境学院/土壤多尺度界面过程与调控重庆市重点实验室 重庆 400715
摘要:  土壤有机物质与土壤矿物质表面之间的相互作用普遍存在,有关土壤有机无机复合体形成理论的研究倍受关注,土壤有机质与矿物质结合的紧密程度直接关系到土壤碳库的稳定性,在环境科学与农业资源利用领域有重要意义。但关于土壤有机无机复合体形成机制还不完善,土壤宏观、介观及微观各尺度间的作用机制未能衔接。本文综述了土壤有机无机复合胶体的形成(形成学说、作用机制与影响因子)及此过程中离子的界面行为;系统地梳理了离子在土壤有机无机复合体形成中的作用机制;回顾了土壤有机无机组分相互作用的研究方法;最后强调了离子特异性效应在土壤有机无机复合体形成中的作用,特别是化合价相同的不同离子对土壤系统的性质与过程具有不同的影响。即离子电子层数和外层电子排布的微小差异在土壤表面附近的强电场中被放大,通过极化作用提高离子的有效电荷,增强离子所受的库仑作用力。离子的有效电荷数可以定量表征该土壤胶体复合过程中界面上离子作用的强弱程度。结论不断完善土壤有机无机复合体形成理论,为土壤培肥和污染土壤修复提供理论依据,对促进土壤有机无机复合体环境化学和微粒污染物迁移动力学的研究具有重要的科学意义与实践意义。
关键词:  土壤有机无机复合体  离子吸附  离子键  离子特异性效应  土壤有机质
中图分类号:S153.3
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金(41601230)、中国博士后科学基金(2017M611265)和公益性行业(农业)科研专项基金(201503118-10)资助
The role of ionic interfacial behaviors in formation of soil organic-inorganic complexes
LI Shaobo1, XU Yingde1, GAO Xiaodan1, ZHANG Yun1, ZHANG Guangcai1, LI Song1, XU Chenyang2, TIAN Rui3, WANG Jingkuan1
1.College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University/National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources/Northeast Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation and Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture, Shenyang 110866, China;2.College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China;3.College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University/Chongqing Key Laboratory of Soil Multi-scale Interfacial Process and Control, Chongqing 400715, China
Abstract:  Interactions between soil organic matter and mineral surfaces are ubiquitous. Research on soil organic-inorganic complexes has received much attention. The association of soil organic matter and mineral has been related to the stability of soil carbon pool directly, and this is of great significance to the environmental sciences and agricultural resource utilization. However, the mechanism of the formation of soil organic-inorganic complexes has far remained from perfect, and the link of interaction mechanism at the macroscopic, mesoscopic, and microscopic scales of soil have not been reasonably explained. Therefore, this paper discussed the formation of organic-inorganic composite colloids (formation theory, action mechanism and influencing factors) and the interfacial behavior of ions in this process. It systematically combed the mechanism of ions in the formation of soil organic-inorganic complexes and recalled advanced technologies of studying the interaction between soil organic and inorganic components. Finally, the paper summarized the role of ion-specific effects on the formation of soil organic-inorganic complexes. In particular, different ions with the same valence had different effects on the properties and processes of soil systems. This meant that slight differences between the number and arrangement of the outer electrons were amplified in the strong electric field near the soil surface, which enhanced effective charge of ions and coulombic force on ions by polarization. The effective charge number of ions was used to quantify the strength of ion interaction at the interface during soil colloids association. The conclusions were that soil organic-inorganic complexes improved the complex formation theory of soil organic-inorganic aggregates, provided theoretical basis for soil fertility and bioremediation, promoted environmental chemistry regarding soil organic-inorganic complexes and advanced research on particulate pollutant migration dynamics.
Keyword:  Organic-inorganic complex of soil  Ion adsorption  Ionic bond  Ion specificity effects  Soil organic matter
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