引用本文:梅沛沛,王平,李隆,张轩,桂林国,黄建成.新开垦土壤上构建玉米/蚕豆-根瘤菌高效固氮模式[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(1):62-74
MEI Peipei,WANG Ping,LI Long,ZHANG Xuan,GUI Linguo,HUANG Jiancheng.Construction of efficient nitrogen-fixing cropping pattern:Maize/faba bean intercrop with rhizobium inoculation in reclaimed low-fertility soils[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(1):62-74
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170620
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新开垦土壤上构建玉米/蚕豆-根瘤菌高效固氮模式
梅沛沛,王平,李隆,张轩,桂林国,黄建成
作者单位E-mail
梅沛沛 中国农业大学资源与环境学院/植物与土壤相互作用教育部重点实验室 北京 100193;河南科技学院生命科技学院/现代生物育种河南省协同创新中心 新乡 453003  
王平 宁夏农林科学院作物研究所 银川 750105  
李隆 中国农业大学资源与环境学院/植物与土壤相互作用教育部重点实验室 北京 100193 lilong@cau.edu.cn 
张轩 中国农业大学资源与环境学院/植物与土壤相互作用教育部重点实验室 北京 100193  
桂林国 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所 银川 750002  
黄建成 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所 银川 750002  
摘要:  为了在新开垦土壤上构建高效种植模式,本文采用温室盆栽和大田试验相结合的方法,选用4种根瘤菌接种方式(保水剂拌种、清水拌种、三叶期灌根和种子丸衣化)接种4种不同蚕豆根瘤菌(NM353、CCBAU、G254和QH258),分析接菌后新开垦土壤上玉米/蚕豆间作体系的生产潜力、地上部氮素吸收和结瘤特性以及生物固氮等方面的优势,拟为该体系筛选出高效的根瘤菌及其接种技术。结果表明:接种NM353后,玉米/蚕豆间作体系中蚕豆籽粒产量比单作平均增加152.84%,而玉米保持相对稳产;以保水剂拌种的方式接种NM353的间作蚕豆地上部氮素积累量最高,蚕豆结瘤数、瘤重、固氮比例和固氮量均高于本试验中其他3种方式接种的根瘤菌。在盛花期和盛花鼓粒期,接种NM353蚕豆的固氮比例比接种CCBAU的分别高19.1%和11.1%,在各个生育时期两者固氮量之间差异均达显著水平;接种NM353与接种其他菌种间固氮量和固氮比例差异更显著。因此,在新开垦土壤上,用保水剂拌种的方式对间作蚕豆接种NM353根瘤菌,构建玉米/蚕豆-根瘤菌高效固氮体系,为新开垦土壤合理开发利用的可持续发展模式。
关键词:  蚕豆/玉米间作  间作优势  根瘤菌  生产力  氮素吸收  生物固氮
中图分类号:S344.2;S144.3
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300202)和国家科技支撑计划项目(2007BAD89B02)资助
Construction of efficient nitrogen-fixing cropping pattern:Maize/faba bean intercrop with rhizobium inoculation in reclaimed low-fertility soils
MEI Peipei,WANG Ping,LI Long,ZHANG Xuan,GUI Linguo,HUANG Jiancheng
Abstract:  Lighe sierozem in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation area is characterized as newly reclaimed soil due to lower fertility and land consolidation. To rational use land resources with environmental friendly way of the soil, leguminous/non-leguminous crops intercropping plus nitrogen-fixing rhizobium is an important measure. In order to construct an efficient nitrogen-fixing cropping pattern in reclaimed lands, the efficiency of Rhizobium species and the inoculation methods were investigated aiming to the construction of a maize/faba bean-rhizobium intercropping systems through the greenhouse and field experiments with newly-reclaimed low-fertility soils. Four Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae (NM353, CCBAU, G254 and QH258) and four inoculation methods (seed inoculation with water absorbent, seed inoculation with water, dip root at 3-leaf stage and seed pelleting & inoculation) were used and the relative advantages determined with respect to crop productivity, aboveground nitrogen acquisition, nodule characteristics, biological nitrogen fixation, etc. The greenhouse experiment results showed that the order of total biomass of intercropped maize and faba bean for different rhizobium was CCBAU > NM353 > G254 > QH258 > intercropping without rhizobium > sole crop without rhizobium, and for inoculation method was seed inoculation with water absorbent > seed pelleting & inoculation > seed inoculation with water > dip root at 3-leaf stage. The field experiment showed that inoculation with NM353 with seed inoculation via water absorbent method produced significant increase in yield of intercropped faba bean and maize by 79.7% and 42.8%. The intercropping system with G254 and NM353 rhizobium showed obvious yield advantage, the land equivalent ratio was >1.5. Also nitrogen content of faba bean and maize was highest among different treatments. In addition, the number of nodules, nodule biomass and nitrogen derived from air (Ndfa) and percent Ndfa (%Ndfa) were all greater in the newly-established system compared to non-inoculated faba beans. Particularly,%Ndfa of faba bean inoculated with NM353 was respectively 19.1% and 11.1% higher than that inoculated with CCBAU at peak flowering and pod-filling stages, and both had significant differences. The differences in Ndfa of faba bean were significant between rhizobium inoculation NM353 and CCBAU at each growth stage. Relatively, the difference between NM353 inoculation and the other strains was more significant for either%Ndfa or Ndfa. The inoculation with water absorbent method showed best inoculation effect with respect to nodules number, nodule biomass,%Ndfa and Ndfa. Thus an efficient cropping system was successfully set up for nitrogen fixation. The maize/faba bean-rhizobium intercropping system based on seed inoculated with Rhizobium NM353 was the most sustainable development model for rational development and utilization of the low-fertility soil.
Keyword:  Maize/faba bean intercropping  Inter-specific facilitation  Rhizobium  Productivity  Nitrogen uptake  Biological nitrogen fixation
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