引用本文:阎旭东,王秀领,徐玉鹏,王伟伟,肖宇,刘振敏,黄素芳,岳明强.旱地春玉米不同覆膜种植模式的增产效应[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(1):75-82
YAN Xudong,WANG Xiuling,XU Yupeng,WANG Weiwei,XIAO Yu,LIU Zhenmin,HUANG Sufang,YUE Mingqiang.Yield-increase effect of film-mulching and planting pattern on dryland spring maize[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(1):75-82
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170236
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旱地春玉米不同覆膜种植模式的增产效应
阎旭东,王秀领,徐玉鹏,王伟伟,肖宇,刘振敏,黄素芳,岳明强
作者单位E-mail
阎旭东 沧州市农林科学院 沧州 061001 yxd7826@126.com 
王秀领 沧州市农林科学院 沧州 061001  
徐玉鹏 沧州市农林科学院 沧州 061001  
王伟伟 沧州市农林科学院 沧州 061001  
肖宇 沧州市农林科学院 沧州 061001  
刘振敏 沧州市农林科学院 沧州 061001  
黄素芳 沧州市农林科学院 沧州 061001  
岳明强 沧州市农林科学院 沧州 061001  
摘要:  覆膜种植是旱地春玉米种植的重要方式,具有显著的增产作用。但前人对旱地春玉米在不同覆膜种植方式下的水分利用、根系发育及抗倒伏等增产机理方面研究较少。于2013-2015年在河北省沧州市农林科学院前营试验站开展田间试验,连续3年研究露地平作(CK)、平作覆膜膜下播种(FC-SUF)、平作覆膜膜侧播种(FC-FSS)、起垄覆膜膜下播种(RC-SUF)、起垄覆膜膜侧播种(RC-FSS)等5种种植模式下春玉米产量及产量构成要素、土壤水分、作物根系和抗倒伏情况。结果表明:RC-FSS、RC-SUF、FC-FSS和FC-SUF比CK 3年平均分别增产24.97%、17.75%、11.69%和8.67%,其中起垄覆膜侧播技术(RC-FSS)增产效果最优,其水分利用效率比CK平均提高26.27%。RC-FSS处理垄沟处0~20 cm土壤含水量比CK增幅达30.44%~47.66%,达极显著差异;RC-FSS处理的抗倒伏性最好,其倒伏率仅为0.9%,抗倒伏力最大为29.4 N,与CK差异达显著水平。在玉米整个生育期内,0~10 cm土壤温度各覆膜处理比CK平均增加0.3~2.3℃,以RC-SUF种植模式下增温最显著。成熟期RC-FSS模式下根系分布直径、根系干重明显优于RC-SUF、FC-SUF和CK,差异均达显著水平。研究表明,春玉米起垄覆膜侧播技术具有集雨保墒、促根壮苗、高抗倒伏、增产稳产的作用,在春季干旱少雨的滨海平原区有广阔的应用前景。
关键词:  春玉米  旱地  覆膜种植  膜侧播种  水分利用效率  根系性状  增产效应
中图分类号:S513
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAD05B0504)和国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300305)资助
Yield-increase effect of film-mulching and planting pattern on dryland spring maize
YAN Xudong,WANG Xiuling,XU Yupeng,WANG Weiwei,XIAO Yu,LIU Zhenmin,HUANG Sufang,YUE Mingqiang
Abstract:  Film mulching is the main mode of cultivation of spring maize in drylands. However, few studies have been conducted on the water use, root development and anti-collapse mechanisms of dry spring maize under different mulching conditions. A field research was carried out in 2013-2015 at Qianying Experimental Station of Cangzhou Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences. Spring maize (Zhengdan 958) was grown for 3 years under five film-mulching and planting patterns, which were flat planting without film mulching (CK), flat film mulching and sowing under film (FC-SUF), flat film mulching and film skirting sowing (FC-FSS), film mulching on ridge and sowing under film (RC-SUF), and film mulching on ridge and film skirting sowing (RC-FSS). Yield, yield components, soil moisture, roots and lodging resistance of spring maize were investigated at different growth stages. The results showed that yields of maize under RC-FSS, RC-SUF, FC-FSS and FC-SUF increased respectively by 24.97%, 17.75%, 11.69% and 17.75% over that of CK, with RC-FSS having the highest yield. Water use efficiency (WUE) under RC-FSS increased by 26.27% compared to CK. In the 0-20 cm soil layer, soil water content was increased by 30.44%-47.66% (P < 0.01) under RC-FSS compared with CK. Spring maize under RC-FSS had the maximum lodging resistance (29.4 N), which was significantly higher than that of CK (P < 0.05). Film mulching increased soil temperature in the 0-10 cm soil layer to 0.3-2.3℃, and RC-SUF had the maximum soil temperature. RC-FSS had greater root diameter and dry weight of spring maize than RC-SUF, FC-SUF and CK (P < 0.05). This study indicated that film mulching on ridge and film skirting sowing increased or maintained yield of spring maize by increasing rainwater storage and soil moisture conservation, root growth promotion and lodging resistance. It implied that it was possible to extensively apply film mulching in the coastal plain areas with drought and little rainfall in spring.
Keyword:  Spring maize  Dryland  Film mulching  Film skirting sowing  Water use efficiency  Root trait  Yield-increase effect
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