引用本文:尹晓宁,刘兴禄,董铁,牛军强,孙文泰,马明.苹果园不同覆盖材料对土壤与近地微域环境及树体生长发育的影响[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(1):83-95
YIN Xiaoning,LIU Xinglu,DONG Tie,NIU Junqiang,SUN Wentai,MA Ming.Effects of different mulching materials on soil and near-surface environment and of apple orchard tree growth[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(1):83-95
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170586
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苹果园不同覆盖材料对土壤与近地微域环境及树体生长发育的影响
尹晓宁, 刘兴禄, 董铁, 牛军强, 孙文泰, 马明
甘肃省农业科学院林果花卉研究所 兰州 730070
摘要:  干旱是影响陇东雨养区苹果生产的主要限制因素之一,覆盖保墒是保证该区苹果稳产丰产的重要措施。为了探寻适宜于陇东地区苹果园的覆盖保墒措施,于19年生‘长富2号’苹果园,采用覆盖麦草(WM)、覆盖细河沙(SM)、覆盖黑色地膜(FM)的地表连续3年(2010年11月-2013年11月)覆盖处理,以清耕(CK)为对照,研究不同覆盖材料对果园环境及树体生长发育的影响。结果表明:4-6月干旱期,3年各覆盖处理0~100 cm土层的平均含水量均显著(P<0.01)高于对照,且WM处理>SM处理>FM处理>CK;覆盖第3年,从花芽膨大到果实采收,叶幕形成(幼果期)前0~500 cm土层WM处理和SM处理的耗水量显著(P<0.01)低于CK,叶幕形成后则显著(P<0.05)高于CK,但耗水总量略低于CK;FM处理在叶幕形成前后均显著(P<0.01)高于CK。WM处理降低3-8月份5~25 cm各层土壤温度,而升高了9-11月份土温,但5~25 cm平均地温日变幅始终显著(P<0.05)低于CK,同时近地表气温降低相对湿度升高;SM处理对地温的影响较小,但明显提高近地表气温而降低相对湿度;FM处理的地温及日变幅始终高于CK,近地表气温和相对湿度与CK接近。各种覆盖处理对苹果物候期均无明显影响。总体0~60 cm土层各种养分含量顺序为WM处理>CK>FM处理>SM处理,且WM处理随年份增幅较大;FM处理0~20 cm土层与SM处理0~60 cm各土层的有机质、全氮和碱解氮等养分随年份降低最明显,相应的全盐量(包括WM处理0~20 cm土层)均显著(P<0.01)低于CK。各种覆盖处理增加了苹果树体枝条生长量,但对枝类组成影响都不大。各种覆盖处理增加了果实单果重及产量,均以WM处理显著(P<0.05)高于CK。水分利用效率WM处理显著(P<0.01)高于其他处理。综上所述,陇东雨养区苹果园覆盖麦草效果较佳,长期覆沙和覆膜土壤须补充有机肥及其他养分,单一覆膜还需完善。
关键词:  苹果园  地面覆盖  覆盖材料  土壤环境  近地微域环境  树体生长  产量和品质  水分利用效率
中图分类号:S661.1
基金项目:国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201303104)、国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0201135)、甘肃省苹果产业科技攻关项目(GPCK2010-1)、国家苹果产业技术体系(CARS-27)和西北地区果树科学观测实验站资助
Effects of different mulching materials on soil and near-surface environment and of apple orchard tree growth
YIN Xiaoning, LIU Xinglu, DONG Tie, NIU Junqiang, SUN Wentai, MA Ming
Institute of Fruit and Floriculture Research, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730070, China
Abstract:  Apple is one of the top four fruits in the world and Chinese apple area and output are all the highest. Longdong, the Loess Plateau lying in East Gansu Province, is the largest apple cultivation region in China, with apple cultivated area and yield accounting respectively for 11.11% and 8.75% of the country (Gansu Rural Year book 2015). Apple is a major industry towards the alleviation of local poverty and enrichment of the local people. While drought is one of the main limiting factors of apple production under rainfed conditions, and mulching is an important method for improving the yield of apple. A field experiment was designed to find a suitable measure of soil moisture conservation in apple orchards in Longdong. In a 19-year-old ‘Nagafu No.2’ apple orchard, wheat straw mulching (WM), river sand mulching (SM), black plastic film mulching (FM) and clean tillage (CK) were applied to study effects of mulching matrieals on the apple orchard environment and tree development for the period from November 2010 to November 2013. Results showed that from April to June, average soil moisture content in the 0-100 cm soil layers of three mulching treatments was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of CK. Also the order of soil moisture content under treatments was WM > SM > FM > CK. In the third year, soil water consumptions in the 0-500 cm soil layer under WM and SM treatments were significantly (P < 0.01) lower than that of CK during the period from flower bud expansion stage to end of leaf canopy development stage, while significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of CK for the period from end of leaf canopy development stage to maturity stage. However, total soil water consumptions of the two treatments were slightly lower than that of CK. Soil water consumption under FM treatment was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that under CK before and after leaf canopy development. Treatment WM reduced soil temperature in the 5-25 cm soil layer during the period from March to August, increased soil temperature from September to November, but significantly (P < 0.05) decreased average daily soil temperature amplitude in the 5-25 cm soil layer, compared with CK. The near-surface temperature decreased while relative humidity increased under WM treatment compared with CK. Treatment SM had a slight effect on soil temperature, but obviously increased near-surface temperature and decreased relative humidity. The soil temperature and daily amplitude of FM treatment from March to November were always higher than those of CK, and the near-surface temperature and relative humidity were close to CK. Three mulching treatments had no obvious effect on phenological period of apple. On the whole, the order of the contents of nutrients in the 0-60 cm soil layer was WM > CK > FM > SM. The increase in almost all forms of nutrient was highest under WM treatment with the years. However, organic matter, alkaline hydrolytic N and total N in the 0-60 cm soil layer under SM treatment and in the 0-20 cm soil layer under FM treatment decreased obviously with the years. Correspondingly, total salt content (including in the 0-20 cm soil layer under WM treatment) was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than that of CK. All the mulching treatments enhanced apple tree growth, but had little effect on shoot ratio. These mulching treatments also increased single fruit weight and yield, which were significantly (P < 0.05) higher under WM treatment than under CK. Water use efficiency of WM was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than those of other treatments, and the order was WM > SM > CK > FM. The results indicated that wheat straw mulching was better for apple orchard cultivation under rainfed conditions in Longdong. The implementation of river sand mulching and black plastic film mulching should be combined with applications of organic fertilizer and other nutrients The dominant single film mulching measure in the region needed to be further improved.
Keyword:  Apple orchard  Soil mulching  Mulching material  Soil environment  Near-surface environment  Tree growth  Yield and quality  Water use efficiency
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