引用本文:胡家齐,夏桂敏,张(龙天),张柏纶,迟道才.花生补灌条件下施氮对土壤氮素吸收与转化的影响[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(1):96-105
HU Jiaqi,XIA Guimin,ZHANG Yan,ZHANG Bailun,CHI Daocai.Effect of nitrogen application on soil nitrogen absorption and transformation under supplementary irrigation of peanut[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(1):96-105
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170523
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花生补灌条件下施氮对土壤氮素吸收与转化的影响
胡家齐, 夏桂敏, 张(龙天), 张柏纶, 迟道才
沈阳农业大学水利学院 沈阳 110866
摘要:  为提高辽西地区花生产量和水氮利用率,本文以‘白沙1016’为对象,采取裂区试验,主区为雨养(W0)和测墒补灌(W1)两种灌溉模式,子区为0 kg·hm-2(N0)、40 kg·hm-2(N1)、60 kg·hm-2(N2)和80 kg·hm-2(N3)4个施氮水平,研究施氮对测墒补灌条件下花生干物质积累和氮素积累及分配的影响。试验结果表明:在雨养和测墒补灌条件下,花生成熟期的单株干物质量分别为64.66~74.92 g和71.65~92.81 g,以W1N3处理最高,W0N0最低,且随施氮量呈现二次曲线变化趋势。花生植株氮积累量随施氮量变化趋势与干物质量一致,W1N2较其他处理显著提高了氮素积累量、产量和水分利用效率。测墒补灌优化了花生植株中氮素的分配,延长了叶片氮素积累时长,同时提高了叶片氮素向荚果的转移量,继而相对雨养处理显著增加了花生荚果氮积累量所占植株氮积累总量的比重(氮收获系数)2.13%、氮肥农学利用率78.57%、氮肥表观回收率25.90%。花生收获后,土壤硝态氮主要分布在0~40 cm土层内,占0~60 cm土层的77.75%,且累积量随着施氮量的增高而增加,但补灌会使土壤硝态氮下移造成硝态氮淋失。因此,综合考虑水氮利用效率,在辽西半干旱地区推荐W1N2为适宜花生生产水氮管理,其产量、水分利用效率和灌溉水利用效率最高,分别为6 485.03 kg·hm-2、2.02 kg·m-3和10.21 kg·m-3
关键词:  花生  雨养  测墒补灌  施氮量  氮素吸收与转化  硝态氮  水氮利用率
中图分类号:S27;TV93
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项项目(201303125)资助
Effect of nitrogen application on soil nitrogen absorption and transformation under supplementary irrigation of peanut
HU Jiaqi, XIA Guimin, ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Bailun, CHI Daocai
College of Water Conservancy, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
Abstract:  Rainfed agriculture is a mode of critical production which relies on natural rainfall in arid and semiarid regions. However, it causes crop yield instability due to frequent insufficient water supply at key growth stages of crops. Thus supplemental irrigation based on soil moisture has been widely adopted as an alternative water-saving irrigation method. To determine the effects of different nitrogen (N) application rates on nitrogen absorption and distribution, yield of peanut and soil nitrate accumulation under rainfed or supplementary irrigation conditions, a split plot experiment was conducted using the ‘Baisha 1016’ peanut variety with different N and irrigation managements in semiarid region of West Liaoning Province. The aim of the study was to explore suitable water and N managements and provide support for "modulate N with water" in peanut cultivation in semiarid regions. The irrigation treatments included W0 (rainfed condition) and W1 (supplemental irrigation based on soil moisture with the lower limit of soil water content of 55% of field capacity). The N treatments included N0[no N], N1[40 kg(N)·hm-2], N2[60 kg(N)·hm-2] and N3[80 kg(N)·hm-2]. The results indicated that biomass and plant N uptake were highest under W1N2 treatment (supplemental irrigation at N application rate of 60 kg·hm-2) among all treatments at maturity stage of peanut. The yield and nitrogen accumulation of peanut increased with increasing nitrogen, but decreased at N3 dose. N application rate, irrigation mode and their interactions significantly affected yield, water use efficiency (WUE), N use efficiency (NUE)[including N agronomic efficiency (NAE), grain N recovery efficiency (GRE) and apparent N recovery efficiency (NRE), and N harvest index (NHI)]. Total plant pod N accumulation greatly increased due to the optimal distribution of N nutrient in peanut, and accelerated N transfer from leaf to kernel under W1 treatment. This created beneficial effects on increasing total plant pod N accumulation, peanut harvest index, agronomic N efficiency and yield. Compared with W0, W1 increased peanut NHI, NAE and NRE by 2.13%, 78.57% and 25.90%, respectively. Soil nitrate content was highest in the 0-20 cm soil layer after peanut harvest, but decreased with increasing soil depth. The accumulation of soil nitrate N at the 0-60 cm soil depth increased with increasing N application rate. However, supplementary irrigation accelerated the leaching loss of soil nitrate N. It was concluded that W1N2 treatment had the highest yield (6 485.03 kg·hm-2), WUE (2.02 kg·m-3) and irrigation WUE (10.21 kg·m-3). It was therefore recommended as the best combination for water and N to improve peanut yield under drip irrigation with plastic film mulching in semi-arid regions in Western Liaoning Province.
Keyword:  Peanut  Rainfed  Supplemental irrigation  Nitrogen application rate  Nitrogen absorption and transfer  Nitrate nitrogen  Nitrogen and water use efficiency
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