引用本文:林丽梅,刘振滨,杜焱强,苏时鹏,郑逸芳.生猪规模养殖户污染防治行为的心理认知及环境规制影响效应[J].中国生态农业学报,2018,26(1):156-166
LIN Limei,LIU Zhenbin,DU Yanqiang,SU Shipeng,ZHENG Yifang.Psychological cognition of pollution prevention of family-oriented scale pig breeders and environmental regulation influence effects[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2018,26(1):156-166
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170828
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生猪规模养殖户污染防治行为的心理认知及环境规制影响效应
林丽梅1, 刘振滨2, 杜焱强3, 苏时鹏2, 郑逸芳2
1.福建江夏学院公共事务学院 福州 350108;2.福建农林大学公共管理学院 福州 350002;3.复旦大学环境科学与工程系 上海 200433
摘要:  从微观层面厘清生猪规模养殖户污染防治的行为逻辑,对宏观层面优化畜禽养殖污染治理具有重要驱动作用。为分析养殖户的无害化处理和资源化利用行为的影响因素,本文以福建省406个生猪规模养殖户为研究对象,运用结构方程模型分析养殖户心理认知对其污染防治行为的影响,并通过层次分析模型检验环境规制对心理认知-防治行为的调节效应。结果表明:1)生猪规模养殖户的污染防治行为是其在心理认知的显著正向影响下,并由环境规制的综合调节而形成的理性选择。2)养殖户的污染防治行为决策源于其对责任意识、生态理性、治污能力自我评估等的认知,是对其他养殖户的参照和对政府、非养殖户环境诉求的积极响应,也是规避风险的理性选择。3)激励性和引导性措施是对约束性环境规制的重要补充,约束性规制措施对无害化处理行为具有更显著的调节效应,激励性规制对资源化利用行为更具调节作用,引导性规制对污染防治行为具有综合调节效应。4)据此,提出加强对市场激励性规制和村规民约等非正式制度手段的应用,充分考虑养殖户对生猪养殖的依赖性及其污染防治的行为控制能力,兼用引导弃养、产业转移扶持和警示惩戒手段等促进生猪规模养殖污染防治的建议。
关键词:  心理认知  环境规制  生猪规模养殖户  污染防治行为  结构方程模型
中图分类号:X22
基金项目:福建省社科规划青年博士论文项目(FJ2016C201)、福建省中国特色社会主义理论体系研究重点项目(FJ2016A007)和福建农林大学优秀博士学位论文资金(YB2015008)资助
Psychological cognition of pollution prevention of family-oriented scale pig breeders and environmental regulation influence effects
LIN Limei1, LIU Zhenbin2, DU Yanqiang3, SU Shipeng2, ZHENG Yifang2
1.School of Public Administration, Fujian Jiangxia University, Fuzhou 350108, China;2.School of Public Administration, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China;3.School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
Abstract:  Large-scale rearing of pigs, with family members as the main labor force, is an important mode of pig production in China. The characteristics of pollution caused by this breeding model are dispersion, publicity and difficulty in locating polluters, all of which collectively weaken the effect of existing policies and regulations of pollution control. Interestingly, however, current policies and regulations target large-scale pig farming done at company level and pig breeding communities in the country, while pig farming at family level is left largely unrestrained. Conversely, the pollution caused by the mostly unchecked family-oriented pig farming has become a challenge to sustainable rural development. This paper aimed to illustrate the factors responsible for pollution prevention behavior of farmers and to provide effective recommendations to the government to better control pollution from family-oriented pig farming. In this paper, the pollution prevention and control behavior of pig breeders were divided into two categories-harmless treatment and resource utilization behavior. The research utilized a sample of 406 households engaged in pig rearing in Fujian Province, China. An empirical study was conducted to explain how farmer psychological cognition impacted pollution prevention and control behavior using Structural Equation Model. The moderating effect of environmental regulation on respondent psychological cognition and pollution control behavior was examined using Multi-Level Regression Model. The results showed that respondent pollution prevention and control behavior was positively impacted by individual psychological cognition, moderated by environmental regulations. The decisions of pollution prevention and control behaviors of farmers were due to the cognitions of responsibility, ecological rationality, and self-assessment of own pollution control ability. The decisions were also referenced from the actions of other farmers, government regulation and from non-farmer groups, and it was also a rational choice to avoid risks. Incentive and guidance measures worked hand in hand with restrictive environmental regulation in the sense that restrictive regulatory measures had a more significant effect on harmless treatment behaviors. The incentive regulation had a more important effect on resource utilization behavior. Then guidance regulation had significant regulation effect on both harmless treatment and resource utilization behaviors. To promote pollution prevention and control of family-oriented scale pig farming, this paper advised the strengthening of the application of market incentives regulation and village social capital to regulate farmer pollution prevention behavior. It was necessary for pollution control to give a full consideration to farmer dependence on rear pigs and behavior control ability. It was also advanced to guide farmers giving up pig farming in a reasonable way through strengthening industry transfer support and using warning and punishment measures.
Keyword:  Psychological cognition  Environmental regulation  Family-oriented pig breeding  Pollution prevention and control behavior  Structural equation modeling
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