引用本文:杨仕曦,吕广斌,黄云,向华辉,王正银. 九龙坡花椒种植区地形、土壤肥力与花椒产量的关系[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(12): 1823-1832
YANG Shixi,LYU Guangbin,HUANG Yun,XIANG Huahui,WANG Zhengyin. Relationships of Zanthoxylum bungeanum yield with topography and soil fertility in Jiulongpo area[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(12): 1823-1832
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190127
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九龙坡花椒种植区地形、土壤肥力与花椒产量的关系
杨仕曦1, 吕广斌1, 黄云1, 向华辉2, 王正银1
1.西南大学资源环境学院 重庆 400716;2.重庆市九龙坡区农业技术推广中心 重庆 400039
摘要:  为了解九龙坡花椒种植区土壤养分状况及该区地形因子、土壤肥力因子与花椒产量的关系,为科学合理制定花椒高效施肥措施提供理论依据,本研究采用田间调查研究和室内分析的方法,研究了九龙坡花椒种植区低、中、高产区的海拔、坡度及土壤pH、有机质、大量微量元素含量和交换性能的变化特征,及其与花椒产量的关系。研究结果表明:九龙坡花椒普遍种植于200~500 m海拔范围,高产区集中在300 m左右的海拔;从低产区到高产区坡度略有增加,但未达显著水平。土壤均属酸性土,pH<6.5。土壤肥力总体属高水平范围,但各养分因子差异很大,其中土壤阳离子交换量(CEC)、有效磷、有效钙、有效镁、有效铁、有效锰、有效铜、有效锌含量丰富,分别为27.2 cmol(+)·kg-1、35.2 mg·kg-1、3 289.8 mg·kg-1、271.8 mg·kg-1、48.6 mg·kg-1、62.1 mg·kg-1、1.5 mg·kg-1、4.5 mg·kg-1;有机质、碱解氮、速效钾、交换性酸属适中水平,分别为19.1 mg·kg-1、114.9 mg·kg-1、107.0 mg·kg-1、8.1 cmol(+)·kg-1;水溶性硼缺乏,为0.28 mg·kg-1。相关分析表明花椒产量与有效钙、CEC、pH、有效锰、水溶性硼呈显著正相关;通径分析结果表明有效钙、CEC、交换性酸、有效铜、有效铁、有效锌是影响花椒产量的主要因子,逐步回归分析构建了有效钙(X6)与花椒产量(Y)的最优回归线性方程:Y=11.693+0.003X6。综上所述,九龙坡花椒种植区土壤养分失衡较为严重,施肥应注重养分的平衡,增施有机肥,改善土壤理化性状,治理土壤酸化。
关键词:  花椒  地形  土壤肥力  产量  养分平衡
中图分类号:S158.3
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(41530855)和国际植物营养研究所(IPNI)项目(2013-Chongqing-02)资助
Relationships of Zanthoxylum bungeanum yield with topography and soil fertility in Jiulongpo area
YANG Shixi1, LYU Guangbin1, HUANG Yun1, XIANG Huahui2, WANG Zhengyin1
1.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China;2.Extension Centre of Agricultural Techniques of Jiulongpo District in Chongqing, Chongqing 400039, China
Abstract:  The relationships of soil nutrient conditions and topography with production in Jiulongpo Zanthoxylum bungeanum planting areas was studied through a field investigation-based research and lab analysis to provide a theoretical basis for scientific and effective fertilization practices. The characteristics of altitude and slope, and soil pH, organic matter content, macro- and micro-elements content, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and exchange acidity as well as Z. bungeanum yeild in low-, medium and high-yield areas of Z. bungeanum were investigated. The results showed that Z. bungeanum was generally planted at altitudes between 200 and 500 meters in Jiulongpo, and the altitude of the high-yield area was approximately 300 meters. The slope from low-to high-yield areas appeared to be slight increase but not obvious. The soil was acidic, with a pH<6.5; and soil fertility was high, with large differences in nutrient factors. CEC and available phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc were abundant at 27.2 cmol(+)·kg-1, 35.2 mg·kg-1, 3 289.8 mg·kg-1, 271.8 mg·kg-1, 48.6 mg·kg-1, 62.1 mg·kg-1, 1.5 mg·kg-1, and 4.5 mg·kg-1, respectively. Organic matter and available nitrogen, potassium and exchange acid were at a moderate levels of 19.1 mg·kg-1, 114.9 mg·kg-1, 107.0 mg·kg-1 and 8.1 cmol(+)·kg-1, respectively. The content of water-soluble boron was a relatively low 0.28 mg·kg-1. Z. bungeanum yield exhibited a positive correlation with available calcium, CEC, pH, available manganese, and water-soluble boron. Available calcium, CEC, exchange acidity, and available copper, iron, and zinc were the main influencing factors on yield. An optimal linear regression equation of available calcium (X6) and yield (Y) was established based on stepwise regression analysis (Y=11.693 + 0.003X6). In conclusion, soil nutrient in Jiulongpo Z. bungeanum area was imbalanced seriously, more attention should be paid to balancing fertilization, increasing organic fertilizer, improving the physical and chemical properties of soil, and relieving soil acidification.
Keyword:  Zanthoxylum bungeanum  Topography  Soil fertility  Yield  Nutrient balance
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