引用本文:胡文浩,那书豪,李学东,李想,宇振荣,王文静,段美春. 乡土野花组合在农业景观中的应用[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(12): 1846-1856
HU Wenhao,NA Shuhao,LI Xuedong,LI Xiang,YU Zhenrong,WANG Wenjing,DUAN Meichun. Application of native wildflower mixtures in agricultural landscapes[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(12): 1846-1856
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190262
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乡土野花组合在农业景观中的应用
胡文浩1, 那书豪1, 李学东1, 李想1, 宇振荣1, 王文静2, 段美春3
1.中国农业大学资源与环境学院 北京 100193;2.西湖大学生命科学学院 杭州 300124;3.西南大学农学与生物科技学院 重庆 400715
摘要:  乡土野花组合是筛选以乡土野花为主体的,并通过混合播种建立群落的一种景观植被建植模式,是欧美国家近年来较为流行的一种农业景观恢复与建设的技术措施。已有的研究发现乡土野花组合能够改善景观结构与生境质量,吸引传粉生物和自然天敌,从而起到增强农业景观的传粉及害虫控制功能,并改善农作物品质、提高农作物产量;与此同时,乡土野花组合也具有较好的文化功能。乡土野花组合的设计对建植效果具有重要作用,其物种筛选、配比、播种方式及布局是设计中需要主要解决的问题。本文在总结欧美国家乡土野花组合设计模式与生态监测结果的基础上,提出乡土野花组合物种筛选的3原则:乡土性、功能多样性与包含特定关键物种;并对其生长周期、物种数、播量、播种面积与空间布局等技术细节进行了讨论,以促进乡土野花组合的本土化、区域化发展。欧美国家提出了一系列推动产业发展及农户补贴的有关政策,其中美国主要以推动基础研究与产业发展政策为主,注重限制植物材料本土化;欧洲国家通过多项立法及农业环境管护政策为农户提供多样化的生态补贴,以促进农户充分参与乡土野花组合栽植过程。在我国,尚缺乏成熟的乡土野花组合应用案例。中国的乡土野花组合需充分发掘种质资源并进行生态、栽培与景观特性评估,以实现本土化的乡土野花组合。本文最后提出,通过多学科合作实现乡土野花组合的设计与推广,政府、产业、科研机构与农民共同参与乡土野花组合的设计过程,并提出市场化的生态补贴政策,以推动乡土野花组合在我国农业景观的应用,为改善我国农业生态环境做出应有贡献。
关键词:  乡土植物  野花  生态系统服务功能  传粉  自然天敌  害虫控制  农业景观
中图分类号:Q968.1
基金项目:农业农村部项目(091721109022291004)资助
Application of native wildflower mixtures in agricultural landscapes
HU Wenhao1, NA Shuhao1, LI Xuedong1, LI Xiang1, YU Zhenrong1, WANG Wenjing2, DUAN Meichun3
1.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;2.School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, Hangzhou 300124, China;3.College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Abstract:  The use of native wildflower mixtures, a kind of landscape vegetation planting method that mainly selects native wildflowers and establishes communities via mixed sowing, has become a popular technical measure for agricultural landscape restoration in Europe, America, and elsewhere in recent years. Studies have reported that native wildflower mixtures can improve habitat quality and landscape structure, attract pollinators and natural enemies, and enhance pollination and pest control functions in agricultural landscapes. Moreover, researchers have found that the combination of native wildflowers is an important method for landscape construction. The design of native wildflower mixtures plays an important role in the establishment of planting; therefore, the selections of species, their proportion, and sowing method and layout are important issues that ought to be resolved in the design. Based on a summary of European and American experiences of designing of native wildflower mixtures and biodiversity monitoring, we observed that the nativization, diverse functions, and inclusion of key species play important roles in plant selection. Further, we discussed the detailed techniques for the design, such as the growth cycle, species and seeding quantity, seeding area, and spatial layout, to promote the localization of native wildflower development. Native wildflower mixtures are an important technology for achieving agricultural landscape restoration. In European and American countries, a series of relevant policies have been proposed to promote industrial development and farmers' subsidies. In European countries, numerous legislative and agricultural environmental protection policies have been established to provide farmers with various ecological subsidies to promote their complete participation in the process of local wildflower combination planting. However, in China, there is a lack of cases in which mature local wildflower combinations have been applied. Therefore, it is necessary to completely explore the germplasm resources and evaluate the ecological, cultivation, and landscape characteristics of native wildflower combinations in China to achieve native wildflower combinations. To this end, the present study proposes the realization of the design and promotion of rural wildflower combinations via multidisciplinary cooperation. The government, companies, research institutions, and farmers should all participate in the process of designing rural wildflower combinations and propose market-oriented ecological subsidy policies to promote the same. The application of native wildflower combinations in the field of agricultural landscape restoration could contribute to improving the agricultural ecology in China.
Keyword:  Native plant  Wildflower  Ecosystem service function  Pollination  Natural enemies  Pest control  Agricultural landscape
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