引用本文:孙晓兵,张青璞,孔祥斌,温良友,赵晶,刘风建. 华北集约化农区耕地土壤肥力时空演变特征——以河北省曲周县为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(12): 1857-1869
SUN Xiaobing,ZHANG Qingpu,KONG Xiangbin,WEN Liangyou,ZHAO Jing,LIU Fengjian. Spatiotemporal characteristics of cultivated soil fertility in the intensive agricultural region of North China: A case study of Quzhou County in Hebei Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(12): 1857-1869
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190397
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华北集约化农区耕地土壤肥力时空演变特征——以河北省曲周县为例
孙晓兵1,2, 张青璞1,2, 孔祥斌1,2, 温良友1,2, 赵晶1,2, 刘风建3
1.中国农业大学土地科学与技术学院 北京 100193;2.自然资源部农用地质量与监控重点实验室 北京 100193;3.沧州市土地整理中心 沧州 061000
摘要:  科学准确地进行耕地土壤肥力评价以及揭示其时空演化特征,对于指导农业生产与耕地资源可持续利用具有重要意义。本文以华北集约化农区典型县域河北省曲周县为研究区,基于耕地土壤样点测试数据和耕地利用数据,综合运用模糊综合评价和地统计学方法,以耕地利用图斑为评价单元对耕地土壤肥力进行评价,并揭示耕地土壤肥力的时空演变特征。结果表明:2000-2018年研究区耕地土壤有机质、全氮、有效磷和速效钾平均含量均有所增加,pH有所降低,且均受到结构性因素和随机性因素的共同影响;2000-2018年研究区耕地土壤肥力指数均值由0.25增长为0.54,增长率为116.00%,耕地土壤肥力由较低水平转变为中等水平,且总体变异程度和空间自相关程度均处于中等水平;2000年和2018年耕地土壤肥力等级分别以Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级为主,为总面积的83.92%和50.43%,广泛分布于除侯村镇和依庄乡之外的各个乡镇;2000-2018年研究区耕地土壤肥力Ⅰ级和Ⅱ级面积减少,Ⅲ级、Ⅳ级和Ⅴ级面积有所增加,Ⅱ级转出面积和轻度增加的面积最大,但最高等级和高度增加的耕地面积相对较小,其面积比重分别为1.86%和3.34%。因此,曲周县土壤肥力受到自然本底特征与人为农业生产活动的共同影响,有效地平衡与协调土壤养分元素含量有助于提升耕地土壤肥力以及土地资源的可持续利用程度。
关键词:  土壤肥力  时空演变  耕地  集约化农区  曲周县
中图分类号:S158
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41771561)、教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目(17YJA630040)和中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2019TC096)资助
Spatiotemporal characteristics of cultivated soil fertility in the intensive agricultural region of North China: A case study of Quzhou County in Hebei Province
SUN Xiaobing1,2, ZHANG Qingpu1,2, KONG Xiangbin1,2, WEN Liangyou1,2, ZHAO Jing1,2, LIU Fengjian3
1.College of Land Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;2.Key Laboratory of Agricultural Land Quality and Monitoring of Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100193, China;3.Cangzhou Land Consolidation Center, Cangzhou 061000, China
Abstract:  Fertility is a fundamental characteristic of soil, reflecting its ability to provide nutrients and an environment essential for plant growth. It is a comprehensive reflection of soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties. Scientifically and accurately evaluating the soil fertility in cultivated land and revealing the spatiotemporal characteristics of soil fertility are of great significance for guiding agricultural production and sustainable use of cultivated land resources. The present study focused on Quzhou County, a typical county in the region of intensive agriculture in North China. Based on the test data of soil sample points of cultivated land and data of cultivated land utilization, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the soil fertility of cultivated land to reveal the spatiotemporal evolution of cultivated land soil fertility. The results showed that soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium of the cultivated land increased, whereas pH decreased, from 2000 to 2018, which were all affected by both structural and stochastic factors. The mean soil fertility index of cultivated land increased from 0.25 to 0.54 from 2000 to 2018, and the growth rate was 116.00%. The soil fertility of cultivated land changed from a lower level to a medium level, and the overall degrees of variation and spatial autocorrelation were at medium levels. The levels of soil fertility of cultivated land in 2000 and 2018 were mainly grades Ⅱ and Ⅲ, accounting for 83.92% and 50.43%, respectively, these lands were widely distributed in all towns except for Houcun and Yizhuang. The levels of cultivated land soil fertility of grades Ⅰ and Ⅱ decreased, whereas those of grades Ⅲ, Ⅳ, and Ⅴ increased from 2000 to 2018, and the Ⅱ degree transferred area and slightly increased area were the largest. The area of conversion from grade Ⅱ to grade Ⅲ was the largest, accounting for 59.49% of the total area, and the tendency for a slight increase in soil fertility of cultivated land was most common, accounting for 52.59% of the total area. However, the cultivated land areas of highest grade and with the highest increase were relatively small, constituting only 1.86% and 3.34%, respectively, of the total area. The results showed that, with the exception of pH, the nutrient features of cultivated soil increased in Quzhou County from 2000 to 2018, and the quality of cultivated land soil fertility changed from low to medium, which was affected by the natural background and manmade agricultural production activities. Therefore, the effective balance and coordination of soil nutrient content are helpful to improve soil fertility and sustainable use of land resources.
Keyword:  Soil fertility  Spatial-temporal evolution  Cultivated land  Intensive agriculture area  Quzhou County
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