引用本文:许尔琪. 土地利用对水体营养物影响的研究进展[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(12): 1880-1891
XU Erqi. Research progress in the impact of land use on water nutrients[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(12): 1880-1891
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190110
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土地利用对水体营养物影响的研究进展
许尔琪
中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室 北京 100101
摘要:  日益严重的水质污染威胁到人类健康与生存,水体富营养化是其中一大治理难题。流域土地利用深刻影响水体中的营养物,定量刻画两者关系,可有效指导土地利用优化以改善水体质量。在国内外研究的基础上,本文梳理了样地实验、统计分析、经验模型和机理模型等4类研究土地利用和水体营养物关系的方法,并分析了不同方法应用的优缺点。以往研究多侧重土地利用数量结构,对强度和空间分布的量化及其与水体营养物关系的模型构建等研究尚显不足,多从单一或部分信息进行松散研究,导致不同研究中土地利用对水体营养物的解释能力差异显著。本文着重综述土地利用类型、强度差异和空间分布等3个方面对水体营养物影响的研究进展,并阐述关于两者定量关系尺度效应的争议和不确定性。目前主要存在问题包括现有研究土地利用和水体营养物的关系手段不足、土地利用多组分信息和水体营养物关系规律不清和尺度效应不确定性等3方面。因此,本文以水体污染物的产生、迁移、转化等的生态水文过程为线索,提出土地利用多信息空间综合表达和量化研究框架作为核心突破口。应用该框架,未来围绕融合过程机理与经验统计的模型开发、富营养化过程关联的土地利用多信息综合量化和多尺度结构的构建等3个方面开展研究,旨在为丰富土地利用对水体营养物影响研究提供一定的参考价值。
关键词:  土地利用  水体营养物  量化手段  强度信息  空间分布  尺度效应
中图分类号:X171
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41601095)和中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项(XDA19040305)资助
Research progress in the impact of land use on water nutrients
XU Erqi
Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Abstract:  Increasingly severe water pollution is a threat to human health and survival, and eutrophication is one of the main challenges faced by pollution governance. Because land use is closely related to water nutrients, quantifying the relationship would be an effective way to support the optimization of land use to improve water quality. Based on international and domestic researches, this study reviewed four methods, e.g., plot experiments, statistical analysis, empirical models, and mechanism models, for studying the effects of land use on water nutrients. The advantages and disadvantages of the application of each method were examined. Until now, studies have been conducted mainly to characterize the quantitative structures of land use. However, there is a limitation in the quantification of the intensity and spatial distribution of land use, and a model of the relationship between land use information and water nutrients is lacking. Research progress has found that multiple land use information was loosely studied from an individual or a partial perspective. This easily led to a significant difference in the explanatory power of land use on water nutrients in different case studies. Thus, research progress was particularly summarized on how three aspects of land use information (land use type, use intensity, and spatial distribution) influence water nutrients. The controversy and uncertainty about the scale effect of the quantitative relationship between land use and water eutrophication have been discussed. The main shortcomings of recent studies were concluded, which included the inadequate capability of approaches for correlating land use to water nutrients, unclear mechanism underlying multiple land use information related to water nutrients, and uncertainty about the abovementioned scale effect. To resolve these issues, this study proposed a breakthrough framework of comprehensive expression and quantification of multiple land use information space that was based on the ecohydrological processes affecting the export, migration, and transformation of water nutrients. Using this proposed multiple land use information space, future studies could focus on integrating process mechanism and empirical statistical methods, comprehensively quantifying multiple land use indicators related to eutrophication, and constructing multiscale structures of land use affecting water nutrients. This study can provide a guide for deep investigation of the relationship between land use and water nutrients.
Keyword:  Land use  Water nutrient  Quantification approach  Intensity information  Spatial distribution  Scale effect
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