引用本文:张若焰,陈儒,王秀娟,姜志德. 现代烟草农业的碳效应核算与分析——以陕西省烟草合作社为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(12): 1903-1915
ZHANG Ruoyan,CHEN Ru,WANG Xiujuan,JIANG Zhide. Carbon effect of modern tobacco agriculture: Based on tobacco cooperatives in Shaanxi Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(12): 1903-1915
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190402
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现代烟草农业的碳效应核算与分析——以陕西省烟草合作社为例
张若焰, 陈儒, 王秀娟, 姜志德
西北农林科技大学经济管理学院 杨凌 712100
摘要:  通过构建烟草农业碳效应核算体系,运用调研获取的陕西省烟草专业合作社393户烟农数据,对农户在烟草种植各个环节产生的碳排放量、碳汇量、碳效率、碳密度和碳强度等多项综合碳效应指标进行测算与分析,探究陕西省烟草农业碳效应水平,更具针对性地制定减排政策,以促进烟草农业的低碳化发展。研究结果表明:调研区域烟农种植的641.17 hm2烟田总计碳排放量为3 276.27 t,每公顷碳排放量5.11 t。其中农用能源消耗排放量最大,占碳排放总量的68.21%;其次是农资投入环节,占碳排放总量的24.88%;农业废弃物处理、农田管理以及农田耕地土壤N2O排放所产生的碳排放量所占比重较低。各地区每公顷碳排放量由大到小依次为宝鸡、商洛、安康、汉中。调查烟田的总碳汇量为1 361.86 t,每公顷碳汇量2.12 t。通过秸秆还田、免耕、化肥与有机肥合理配施等措施引致的土壤固碳占总碳汇量的81.12%。各地区每公顷碳汇量排序为商洛、宝鸡、汉中、安康。总净碳汇量为-1 914.41 t,每公顷净碳汇量-2.99 t。研究区烟草农业总碳排放量大于碳汇量,呈现负的净碳汇效应。此外,汉中烟草专业合作社通过采取调整管理经营模式、优化农户投入结构、提高农资利用效率、改进烟草农业技术和转变农户耕作方式等措施,使其碳效率、碳强度和碳密度等综合碳效应均呈现为最优,每公顷净碳汇量最大。
关键词:  烟草生产  专业合作社  综合碳效应  碳排放量  碳汇量
中图分类号:F323.2
基金项目:中国烟草总公司陕西公司委托项目(20170619000002)和国家自然科学基金面上项目(71573212)资助
Carbon effect of modern tobacco agriculture: Based on tobacco cooperatives in Shaanxi Province
ZHANG Ruoyan, CHEN Ru, WANG Xiujuan, JIANG Zhide
School of Economics and Management, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
Abstract:  Greenhouse gas emission from agriculture activities have an important impact on global warming. As the part of the agriculture system, tobacco agriculture has the obligation to address the climate change in the background of Ecological Civilization Construction and Rural Revitalization. To Explore the carbon effect of tobacco agriculture in Shaanxi Province and formulate effectively emission reduction policies to promote the low-carbon tobacco agriculture development, this paper constructed the comprehensive carbon effect accounting system of the tobacco agricultural, calculated the carbon emission, carbon sink, net carbon sink, and analyzed the carbon efficiency, carbon intensity and other comprehensive carbon effect indexes through all production processes of the 393 farmers who engaged in tobacco agriculture from tobacco professional cooperative in Shaanxi Province. The results showed that:for the total 641.17 hectare tobacco fields in the survey area, the total carbon emission was 3 276.27 t C, and the average carbon emission per hectare 5.11 t C, among which the agricultural energy consumption was the largest emission, and the percentage of total carbon emission was 68.21%. Next was the agricultural material inputs which accounted for 24.88% of the total carbon emissions. The agricultural waste disposal, the farmland management, and the farmland soil's nitrous oxide emission accounted for low proportion of carbon emission. The order of average carbon emission per hectare for each region from large to small was Baoji, Shangluo, Ankang and Hanzhong. The total carbon sink was 1 361.86 t C, the average per hectare of the carbon sink was 2.12 t C. Soil carbon sequestration caused by straw returning, no-tillage, and rational applying the chemical fertilizer and organic fertilization accounted for 81.12% of the total carbon sequestration. The average carbon sequestration per hectare in each region was ranked as Shangluo > Baoji > Hanzhong > Ankang. The total net carbon sink was -1 914.41 t C, and the net carbon sink per hectare was -2.99 t C. The total carbon emission of tobacco agriculture was greater than that of carbon sink, showing negative net carbon sink effect. Therefore, it is important to develop the low-carbon modern tobacco agriculture to promote low-carbon technological progress and explore the clean energy instead of coal in the bulk curing barn for flue-cured tobacco. In addition, by adopting measures such as adjusting management and operation mode, optimizing the input structure of farmers, improving the utilization efficiency of agricultural resources, improving tobacco agricultural technology and changing farming methods, Hanzhong Tobacco Professional Cooperative presented the optimal comprehensive carbon effects such as carbon efficiency, carbon intensity, carbon density, and maximize the net carbon sink per hectare.
Keyword:  Tobacco agriculture  Professional cooperatives  Comprehensive carbon effect  Carbon emission  Carbon sink
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