引用本文:罗旭辉,卢新坤,刘岑薇,张丽君,陈恩,Gordon W. Price,翁伯琦. 基于能值分析的蜜柚园生草模式生态经济效益评价[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(12): 1916-1924
LUO Xuhui,LU Xinkun,LIU Cenwei,ZHANG Lijun,CHEN En,Gordon W. Price,WENG Boqi. Evaluation of ecological and economic benefits of pomelo orchards with different grass growing systems based on emergy analysis[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(12): 1916-1924
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190458
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基于能值分析的蜜柚园生草模式生态经济效益评价
罗旭辉1, 卢新坤2, 刘岑薇1, 张丽君1, 陈恩1, Gordon W. Price3, 翁伯琦4
1.福建省农业科学院农业生态研究所 福州 350013;2.福建省农业科学院果树研究所 福州 350003;3.Department of Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Canada B2N 5E3;4.福建省山地草业工程技术研究中心 福州 350013
摘要:  蜜柚是福建省平和县优势特色产业,目前面临发展困境。生草栽培是推动蜜柚绿色发展的重要途径,为科学评价蜜柚园生草模式的生态经济效益,本文应用能值分析法测评平和县五寨镇前岭村蜜柚园生草模式和蜜柚园清耕模式的能值自给率、能值投资率、净能值产出率、环境负载率、有效能产出率和能值反馈率。结果表明:2017-2018年蜜柚园生草模式、蜜柚园清耕模式的能值自给率均为0.003,能值投资率分别为339.291、295.763,净能值产出率均为1.003,环境负载率分别为0.348、0.321,有效能产出率为4.57E-7 J·sej-1、2.90E-7 J·sej-1,能值反馈率为0.002、0.000。与清耕模式相比,生草模式能值总投入下降9.21%,不可更新环境资源下降76.71%,购买能值比重大,显示更高的能值投资率;同时商品果能值提高1.00E+17 sej·hm-2,能量产出提高4.60E+10 J·hm-2,表现出更强的经济活力。劳动力能值投入占能值总投入70.45%~72.90%,其中采摘、日常管理、水肥施用比重大。生草模式在除草环节增加劳动力投入1.31E+16 sej·hm-2,但通过减少农药施用、水肥施用和有机肥搬运节约劳动力,同时优化日常管理,生草模式总劳动力投入降低了3.30E+16 sej·hm-2,基于能值的劳动生产率提高17.50%。生草模式使有机肥、劳动力等可更新资源购买量减少,环境负载率增加0.027。蜜柚园生草模式实现了柚树增产、柚农增收、蜜柚园增绿,为蜜柚产业供给侧结构性改革提供赋能路径。
关键词:  农业生态系统  蜜柚  生草栽培  能值分析  生态经济效率
中图分类号:S7
基金项目:福建省农业科学院科技创新团队项目(STIT2017-3-8)、亚热带特色果树种质资源共享服务平台(NICGR-2019-069)、公益类科研院所专项(2016R1016-3)和福建省红壤山地农业生态过程重点实验室开放课题资助
Evaluation of ecological and economic benefits of pomelo orchards with different grass growing systems based on emergy analysis
LUO Xuhui1, LU Xinkun2, LIU Cenwei1, ZHANG Lijun1, CHEN En1, Gordon W. Price3, WENG Boqi4
1.Institute of Agricultural Ecology, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350013, China;2.Institute of Fruit Research, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350003, China;3.Department of Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, B2N 5E3, Canada;4.Fujian Engineering and Technology Research Center for Hilly Prataculture, Fuzhou 350013, China
Abstract:  Honey pomelo[Citrus. grandis (L.) Osbeck. cv. Hongroumiyou] is the dominant crop in Pinghe County, Fujian Province; however, this historically fruit is facing production challenges. The practice of grass cultivation, rather than grass clearing, in the pomelo orchards is an important method to promote sustainable development in the honey pomelo industry. In order to clearly evaluate the effects of grass management pattern on the ecosystem, the economic and ecological benefits, two cultivation techniques, grass cultivation and grass clearing, were compared in orchards growing honey pomelo located in Qianlin Village, Wuzai Town, Pinghe County in 2017-2018. An emergy methodology was used to compare the two systems by calculating indices of emergy self-sufficiency ratio (ESR), emergy investment value (EIV), emergy yield ratio (EYR), environmental load ratio (ELR), efficient emergy yield ratio (EEYR), and emergy feedback rate (EFR). Results of the emergy indicators for orchards with grass cultivation or with grass clearing were:ESR, 0.003 for both; EIV, 339.291 and 295.763; EYR, 1.003 for both; ELR, 0.348 and 0.321; EEYR, 4.57 and 2.90-7E J·sej-1; and EFR, 0.002 and 0.000; respectively. Compared to grass clearing, grass cultivation had a lower total energy input of 9.21%, a smaller non-renewable natural resources input of 76.71%, and a higher EIV resulting from the rapid decrease of natural energy input and the relatively low cost of purchased emergy input. The grass cultivation pattern showed better economic vigor with an increase of the commercial emergy of 1.00+E sej·hm-2(versus 4.60+10E J·hm-2 for grass clearing). The ratio of labor emergy input to the total was 70.45%-72.90%. The main contributors to labor input were fruit picking, daily management, and water-soluble fertilizer spraying. Although labor for weeding increased under grass cultivation, with a value of 1.31+16E sej·hm-2, total labor energy input decreased by 3.30+16E sej·hm-2 and labor efficiency rose by 17.50% through improvements in daily management and labor savings on pesticide spraying, fertilizing, and organic fertilizer transport. The environmental loading ratio in the cultivated grass system rose, with a value of 0.027 because of purchasing resource savings on organic fertilizers and labor. This study demonstrated that honey pomelo production incorporating a cultivated grass regime had the potential to improve commercial fruit production, increase farmer incomes, and provide a more sustainable production system, and such a management pattern would benefit supply-side reform.
Keyword:  Agricultural ecosystem  Citrus grandis(L.) Osbeck  Grass cultivation  Emergy analysis  Ecological and economic benefits
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