引用本文:陈曦,张旭珠,金池,李安,高萌萌,卢彤,张晓华,李良涛. 太行山区不同农业景观生境的蜘蛛群落结构特征及其影响因子[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(10): 1488-1498
CHEN Xi,ZHANG Xuzhu,JIN Chi,LI An,GAO Mengmeng,LU Tong,ZHANG Xiaohua,LI Liangtao. Effects of agricultural landscape habitat types on spider community structure and the influencing factors in Taihang Mountain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(10): 1488-1498
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200173
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太行山区不同农业景观生境的蜘蛛群落结构特征及其影响因子
陈曦1, 张旭珠1,2, 金池1, 李安1, 高萌萌1, 卢彤1, 张晓华3, 李良涛1
1.河北工程大学园林与生态工程学院 邯郸 056038;2.中国农业大学资源与环境学院 北京 100193;3.河北武安青崖寨国家级自然保护区管理中心 武安 056300
摘要:  为探索太行山区农业景观中不同生境类型对蜘蛛多样性的影响,采用陷阱法对河北省武安市西部太行山区5种类型生境(核桃林、玉米地、苹果-芍药套作园、次生林、绿海花廊景观带)的地表蜘蛛多样性进行调查。通过分析5种类型生境中蜘蛛多样性分布及其与局部生境因子的相关关系,探讨半自然生境对蜘蛛的保护作用。结果表明:人为干扰会显著降低生境中蜘蛛丰富度和多度;增加植被群落结构的复杂程度会使生境中蜘蛛丰富度显著增加,而蜘蛛的多度显著降低;蜘蛛的多度随生境中枯落物厚度的增加而增加。其中核桃林的蜘蛛Shannon-Wiener多样性显著高于其他4种类型生境,核桃林、次生林和绿海花廊的蜘蛛丰富度显著高于苹果-芍药套作园和玉米地,苹果-芍药套作园和绿海花廊的蜘蛛多度显著高于其他3种生境。玉米地、苹果园-芍药套作和绿海花廊中蜘蛛的群落组成具有较高相似性,而核桃林与次生林中蜘蛛群落结构具有较高异质性。地表枯落物厚度是影响当地蜘蛛群落结构的最主要因素。研究区在农业景观与自然景观的过渡区种植核桃林、苹果-芍药套作园和绿海花廊间作板栗,对蜘蛛多样性的保护都有积极作用;不同的生境因子与不同蜘蛛群落的关系不同,如狼蛛偏向人为干扰较大的苹果-芍药套作园和绿海花廊景观带,所以生产管理时要结合特有的生境条件,对相应的蜘蛛进行合理的保护和高效的利用。研究结果对当地的农业景观生境管理和生物多样性保护具有指导意义。
关键词:  半自然生境  生物多样性保护  蜘蛛  生境因子  群落结构
中图分类号:Q14
基金项目:农业部农业环境生物多样性及生态服务功能提升项目(20110402)、河北省科技计划项目(6226309D-3)、邯郸市科技技术研究与发展计划项目(1727201065)和武安青崖寨国家级自然保护区建设项目资助
Effects of agricultural landscape habitat types on spider community structure and the influencing factors in Taihang Mountain
CHEN Xi1, ZHANG Xuzhu1,2, JIN Chi1, LI An1, GAO Mengmeng1, LU Tong1, ZHANG Xiaohua3, LI Liangtao1
1.College of Landscape and Ecological Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, China;2.College of Resources and Environment, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;3.Management Center of Wu'an Qingyazhai National Nature Reserve in Hebei, Wu'an 056300, China
Abstract:  Ground-dwelling spiders were collected using pitfall traps from five different habitats (walnut grove, maize field, apple-peony intercropping orchard, secondary forest, and flower belt) to explore the effects of various habitats on the distribution of spiders in the agricultural landscape of Taihang, Wu'an City mountain area. The distribution of spider diversity and their correlation with the local habitat factors were analyzed. The results showed that walnut grove conserved significantly higher Shannon-Wiener diversity of spiders than the other four habitats. The spider richness was significantly higher in walnut grove, secondary forest, and flower belt than in apple-peony intercropping orchard and maize field; although, apple-peony intercropping orchard and flower belt significantly conserved spider abundance more than the other three habitats. A decrease in spider abundance was due to the field disturbance; however, the spider richness increased with increasing of vegetation complexity, while there was a negative correlation between spider abundance and the vegetation structure complexity. Moreover, the abundance of spiders increased with an increase in the understory litters. Understory litter was the most important factor which determined the spider composition; spider assemblage composition was homogeneous in maize fields, apple-peony intercropping orchard, and flower belts, whereas they were heterogeneous in walnut groves and natural forests. The results of this study indicated that walnut groves, apple-peony intercropping orchard, and intercropping flower with chestnut in the transition zone between agricultural landscape and natural landscape could contribute to spider conservation. Factors of different habitats had different relationships with different spider communities; for example, the Lycosidae prefers the apple-peony intercropping orchard and the flower belt with significant human interference. Therefore, the production management should combine the unique habitat conditions to conduct reasonable protection and efficient utilization of the corresponding spiders. Our results provide guidance for the management and biodiversity conservation of agricultural habitat in the study area.
Keyword:  Semi-natural habitats  Biodiversity protection  Spider  Habitat factors  Community structure
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