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Reference Text:LI Chunxi,LI Sisi,SHAO Yun,MA Shouchen,LIU Qing,WENG Zhengpeng,LI Xiaobo.Effects of organic waste application on soil greenhouse gas emissions of a winter wheat field[J].Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture,2019,27(6):815-824
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Effects of organic waste application on soil greenhouse gas emissions of a winter wheat field
LI Chunxi1, LI Sisi1, SHAO Yun1, MA Shouchen2, LIU Qing1, WENG Zhengpeng1, LI Xiaobo1
1.College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China;2.School of Surveying and Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, China
Abstract:  Exploring the impact of returning organic materials to the soil on greenhouse gas emission characteristics of winter wheat fields can help to improve economic and environmental consequences. Based on 3 modes of organic material return (JF:straw return and cow dung; J:straw return; JZ:straw return and mushroom dregs) and 2 nitrogen levels (N1:243 kg·hm-2; N2:216 kg·hm-2), the fluxes of N2O, CO2, and CH4 in winter wheat fields were monitored using the static chamber method and gas chromatography, and the effects of the different fertilization measures on cumulative greenhouse gas emissions and warming potential of wheat fields were studied. During the experimental period, the amount of fuel consumed by farm machines and the power consumed during irrigation and fertilizer application were recorded and transformed to their carbon equivalents using a transformation coefficient. In addition, crop yield and aboveground biomasses were measured and carbon sequestration calculated. The total GWP under each of the 6 treatments were estimated based on the identified parameters of the greenhouse effect. The results indicated that wheat fields served as sources of N2O and CO2 and sinks of CH4. Nitrogen application and adequate irrigation increased CO2 and N2O in the soil, but weakened the characteristics of CH4 as an atmospheric absorption sink. The total amounts of N2O and CO2 emitted were highest in the JF treatment, at 3.5 kg (N2O-N)·hm-2 and 19 689.67 kg (CO2-C) hm-2 respectively, and the absorption value of CH4 in this treatment was 5.33 kg (CH4-C) hm-2, significantly higher than in both of the JZ and J treatments. The total amounts of N2O and CO2 in each treatment increased, and the total amount of CH4 decreased, with an increase in the nitrogen application rate. The GWP of JFN2, JN2, and JZN2 treatments were all negative, which indicated that the farmland ecosystem is an atmospheric carbon sink when organic materials were returned to the field; nitrogen was reduced by 20%, and the carbon interception by wheat was 1 038-2 024 kg·hm-2. The GWP values were positive and the JZN2 treatment-treated wheat yield was 8 061 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than that of the JFN2 treatment. In summary, JZN2 treatment could ensure wheat yield and had the most favorable environmental effects, and thus was the best fertilization management model for winter wheat in this region
Keyword:  Straw returning  Mushroom dregs  Cow dung  Nitrogen reduction  Winter wheat field  Greenhouse gas  Yield  Global warming potential